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BV 4935 .T44 M37 1847 
Mason, Francis, 1799-1874. 
The Karen apostle 

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59 Washington Street. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1845, 

By Gould, Kendall, and Lincoln, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts. 



The following pages were sent to me by the 
Rev. Mr. Mason, with the request that I would 
superintend their publication in this country. 
They are accordingly now sent forth, in hope 
that the interest which has been felt in behalf 
.of the Karens may be deepened, and that the 
cause of missions to the heathen in general may 
be promoted, by the striking proof of the power 
of the gospel here exhibited. 

The drawing of the Karen house is Mrs. 
Mason's work. " The house differs in appear- 
ance from some drawings of Karen houses that 
have been made, but many are built in this way." 
The other cuts are from Mr. Malcom's Travels 
IN South-Eastern Asia. 
1 * 


In discharging the trust committed to me, I 
have omitted a paragraph or two in the second 
chapter, and in another part of the book have 
altered the arrangement of the materials. I have 
also inserted the author's name on the title-page, 
and added a few notes. The notes which I 
have added are distinguished by the letter E. 


Newtow Theological Institutiok, 
March, 1843. 


Early Life of Ko Thah-Byu. — His Conversion and Baptism, 9 


Burman Oppression of the Karens. — Singular Prophecy. — Ar- 
rival of the English. — Prophecies fulfilled concerning white 
Foreigners. — Attachment to them. — Arrival of Teachers. — 
The Karens obtain Books, 15 


First Journey into the Jungle, to Khat — Second, to Thalu. — 
Seeks his Countrymen in the City of Tavoy. — First Journey 
across the Eastern Mountains, to Tshiekku. — Second Visit 
to Tshiekku. — Third Journey to Tshiekku. — Accompanies 
Mr. Boardman on his first Tour among the Karens. — Visits 
the Southern Karens, at Toung-byouk, Pai, and Palouk. — 
Teaches School at Tshiekku. — Goes to Siam. — Journey 
into the Maulmain Karen Jungles. — Returns to Tavoy with 
Mr. Boardman, 28 


Ko Thah-Byu's successful Labors. — Style of Preaching.— 
Scene of his Successes. — Shades in his Character —Igno- 
rance.— Love of Knowledge .—-Passion.— Habits of Prayer, 41 



Returns to Maulmain. — Goes to Rangoon. — Visits the Karens. 

• — Second Tour. — Spends the Rains at Maubee. — Great 

Success. — Barman Persecution. — FJees to Pegu, . . 49 


Returns to Maulmain. — Second Visit to Rangoon. — Returns to 
Maulmain again. — Goes to Arracan.^ Success. — Sickness 
and Death, 68 


Karen Mission most encouraging. — Most successful. — The 
cheapest, — Native Preachers most useful. — An Establish- 
ment required to educate them. — Susceptibility of the Ka- 
rens to religious Impressions. — Testimony of various Mis- 
sionaries, 73 


Historical and Geographical Notices, 94 

Scriptural Traditions, 97 

Scriptural Precepts, 99 

National Traditions, 100 

Funeral Rites, 101 

Prophets, .... ... . 103 

Romance of Missions, 105 



Early Life of Ko Thah-byu. — His Conversion and 

Often had the Christian voyager gazed on the 
rocky promontories of Burtnah, crowned with 
their whitened pagodas, that glow amid the eternal 
verdure of tropic climes ; but he little thought 
that " the misty mountain tops," in the distance, 
threw their shadows over the eyry dwellings of 
a people, that, generation after generation, had 
charged their posterity never to worship idols. 
Xavier had passed their mountain homes when he 
went to look on, but not to enter, inhospitable 
China, and find a surreptitious resting-place and 
grave upon its barren rocks. Swartz had labored 
half a century to destroy the three hundred thou- 
sand gods of India, without hearing of the nation 
that had rejected them all from the remotest ages. 
Carey had made his forty versions, without a line 
for the people that were longing, with " hope de- 
ferred," for the word of God. And Judson had 
lived Seven years in Rangoon, preaching the eter- 
nal God, before a single individual would admit 
his existence; while the poor unnoticed Karens 


were continually passing his door, and perhaps 
singing by the way, — 

" God is eternal ; his life is long : 
God is immortal; his life is long: 
One kulpa* he dies not ; 
Two kulpas he dies not; 
He is perfect in meritorious attributes ; 
Kulpas on kulpas he dies not." 

The Catholics, who preceded Protestants in 
Burmah several decades f of years, appear to have 
entirely overlooked the Karens ; and it was not 
till after the late war between the English and 
the Burmese, and the removal of the Baptist mis- 
sion to the Tenasserim coast, that they began to 
attract the attention of the missionaries. The 
first allusion to any of that nation is found in 
Mr. Judson's journal of April 22, 1827, where, 
among three hopeful inquirers, he mentions 
" Moung Thah-pyoo, a poor man, belonging to 
Moung Shway-bay ; " but it was not till Mr. 
Judson's second notice, at the close of the year, 
that we learn the individual mentioned was a Ka- 
ren. At that time, Mr. Judson, speaking of his 
hopeful inquirers, says, " The second is Moung 
Thah-pyoo,t a Karen by nation, imperfectly ac- 
quainted with the Burman language, and possessed 
of very ordinary abilities. He has been about us 
several months, and we hope that his mind, though 
exceedingly dark and ignorant, has begun to dis- 
cern the excellency of the religion of Christ." 

* Some long period of time. — E. f Tens. — E. 

X The word Moung is a Burman title of respect, applied to middle- 
aged men. Ko is a similar title applied to elderly men. Pyoo aftd 
Biju are different modes, which have been successively adopted, of 
spelling the same word. Hence Moung- Thah-pyoo and Ko Thah-byu 
designate the same man at different periods of his life. — E. 


This is the individual to whom the following rem- 
iniscences relate. It is very true that he was a 
man " possessed of very ordinary abilities," and 
has therefore left no literary relics, from which to 
compile a bulky memoir. It is true that he was 
degraded among a people that characterize them- 
selves as " a nation most debased arnon^ the de- 
based ; " that he was a poor man, and a slave, till 
Mr. Judson set him free. But it is also true that 
he was afterwards a faithful and successful mis- 
sionary, and a distinguished instrument in the 
hands of God to arouse the attention of the Karen 
nation to Christianity. From the day of his bap- 
tism to his death, he never intermitted his labors 
in preaching Christ, where the Savior had not so 
much as been named, from Tavoy to Siam ; from 
Martaban to the borders of Zimmay ; and from 
Rangoon to Arracan. And though he was the first 
of his nation to go down into the baptismal waters, 
he lived to see hundreds and hundreds follow his 
steps, in whose conversion he held a distinguished 
part. We cannot err in honoring those whom God 
honors; and it therefore seems proper that the 
name of Ko Thah-byu should be rescued from 
oblivion, and inscribed among the worthies of the 
church, that the rising generation may learn what 
" very ordinary abilities," when wholly consecrated 
to God, may accomplish. 

Ko Thah-byu was born about the year 1778, at 
a village called Oo-twau, four days' journey north 
of Bassein. He resided with his parents until he 
was fifteen years of age. He was then, as he rep- 
resented himself, a wicked and ungovernable boy ; 
and, when he left his parents, he became a robber 
and a murderer. " How many of his fellow-men 


he had murdered, either as principal or accessory," 
writes one of the brethren, " he did not exactly 
know himself; more than thirty, without doubt, 
accordinor to his own confession. His natural 
temper was diabolical. After the Burmese war, 
he went to Rangoon, and got into Mr. Hough's 
service." There some religious impressions were 
made on his mind, and he ever remembered Mr. 
Hough with great affection ; and not unfrequently 
"Teacher Hough" was mentioned many years 
afterwards in his public prayers in Tavoy. " He 
followed Mr. Judson to Amherst," where "Ko 
Shway-bay," writes one of the missionary sisters, 
" paid for him a debt of ten or twelve rupees, and 
took him into his family as a servant.* We had 
before felt," she continues, " an interest in the 
Karens, as a people who had not adopted the sys- 
tems of idolatry exhibited by the more civilized 
nations around them ; and this being the first op- 
portunity we had enjoyed of presenting to their 
minds the religion of the Bible, we naturally felt 
deeply anxious that the grace of God should make 
it effectual to his salvation. Truth seemed, how- 
ever, to make no impression upon his mind for a 
long time ; and Ko Shway-bay, getting discouraged 
with regard to doing him any good, informed us 
that Ko Thah-byu's moral character proved to be 
such, that he could no longer retain him in his 
family. Mr. Judson, however, who at the time 
lived with us, proposed to pay the debt, if we 
could find employment by which he could support 
himself; and he was accordingly transferred to our 
family. Soon after this period, he began to pay 

* According to Burman law, the debtor becomes a slave to the 


more attention to religious instruction, and though 
his fits of violent temper gave us a great deal of 
trouble, it was not very long before we began to 
see signs of repentance and the first dawnings of 
faith in a crucified Savior. His mind was, how- 
ever, extremely dark ; he was very slow to believe ; 
and then his violent temper often cast him down, 
and quite discouraged him from praying. After 
some time, however, his faith began to gain a little 
strength, and we, with great joy, perceived a grad- 
ual improvement in his character. The little Bur- 
man church were, however, very slow to perceive 
the change; and though he often begged for the 
privilege of baptism, yet, not having gained a full 
victory over his violent passions, they could not 
think he had really been ' born again.' After hav- 
ing been with us about a year, the church gained 
sufficient evidence of the chano^e to receive him 
as one of their number, and the next Sabbath was 
appointed for his baptism. During the year, how- 
ever, another Karen man, with a family, and a 
young woman, with her two little orphan brothers, 
relatives of the family, made their appearance in 
Maulmain, and, being in a most miserable, starving 
condition, we gave them a little place to live in, and 
took the young woman into the girls' school, while 
the two little boys were put into Mr. Boardman's 
school for boys. The young woman improved 
much in the school, and gave good attention to 
religious instruction ; so that Ko Thah-byu had 
married her previous to the time appointed for his 
baptism. He had likewise been studying very 
diligently, in order to be able to read the Burman 
Bible. But before the day for his baptism arrived, 
Mr. Boardman being ready to sail for Tavoy, and 



wishing to take the two little Karen boys with 
him, Ko Thah-byu concluded to accompany him, 
as his wife was unwilling to be separated so far 
from her little brothers ; and his baptism was 
accordingly deferred until he should arrive in 

His baptism is thus recorded by Mr. Boardman, 
in his journal of May 16, 1828 : — 

" Repaired early in the morning to a neighbor- 
ing tank, and administered Christian baptism to 
Ko Thah-byu, the Karen Christian who accompa- 
nied us from Maulmain. May we often have the 
pleasure of witnessing such scenes! The three 
Karen visitors were present. They appear to be 
impressed with the truth of our doctrine. They 
have urged Ko Thah-byu to accompany them, so 
that I have left it for him to choose whether he 
will go or stay. He has concluded to go. Per- 
haps God has a work for him to do among his 
countrymen. He is very zealous in the cause 
of declaring what he knows." 

Before following him into the jungles, it may 
not be deemed inappropriate to notice, in a sepa- 
rate chapter, the preparation of the Tavoy Karens 
to receive the gospel. 

Waterins a Rice Field. 



Burman Oppression of the Karens. — Singular Prophecy. 
— Arrival of the English. — Prophecies fulfilled con- 
cerning white Foreigners. — Attachment to them. — Ar- 
rival of Teachers. — The Karens obtain Books. 

The remarkable traditions of Scripture doc- 
trines and facts, which make the Karen nation a 
people prepared for the gospel in a manner above 
all other unevangelized nations, are well known, 
and will not be repeated here. But the following 
extracts from an unpublished address to the Eng- 
lish governor-general, written by Sau Q,ua-la, a 
Karen assistant missionary, exhibit the local con- 
dition and anticipations of the Tavoy Karens so 
vividly, that, should they contain any thing irrele- 
vant to the present subject, it will be overlooked, 
it is believed, from the consideration that every 
sentence is the unsuggested production of a Karen, 
who, when Ko Thah-byu entered the jungles, was 
wild as " the untaught Indian." 

'* Through the goodness of God, my nation, 
sons of the forest, and children of poverty, ought 
to praise thy nation, the white foreigners, exceed- 
ingly ; and we ought to obey your orders, for the 
Karens, the sons of the eastern forest, have neither 
head nor ear. They are poor, and scattered every 
where j are divided in every direction ; at the 
sources of the waters, and in the glens above them. 
When they fall among the Siamese, the Siamese 
make them slaves. When they fall among the 
Burmans, the Burmans make them slaves. So 


they live on one stream beyond another, and can- 
not see each other. They have had other things 
to do rather than visit. The Burmans make them 
drag boats, cut ratans, collect dammer, seek bees- 
wax, gather cardamums, strip bark for cordage, 
clear away cities, pull logs, and weave large mats. 
Besides this, they demanded of them presents of 
yams, the bulbo-tubers of arum, ginger, capsicum, 
flesh, elephants' tusks, rhinoceroses' horns, and all 
the various kinds of vegetables that are eaten by 
the Burmans. The men being employed thus, 
the women had to labor at home. Sometimes the 
men were not at home four or five days in two or 
three months. Further, the young females had to 
secrete themselves, and affect rudeness, and black- 
en their faces ; for if they did not, the Burman 
officers would drag them away, and make them 
prostitutes. If any one was reputed handsome, 
and it came to the ears of the Burman rulers, she 
was taken away immediately ; so that the young 
females dared not appear openly. Sometimes, 
when a Burman asked, ' Is she a maiden ? ' the 
Karens would reply falsely, ' No, she has a husband.' 
The married women, also, that were handsome, 
had to conceal themselves. The men were com- 
pelled, by the Burman rulers, to guard forts, to 
act as guides, to kidnap Siamese, and to go from 
one place to another, till many dropped down dead 
in the midst of the jungle. Notwithstanding they 
did all this, they had their arms twisted behind 
them, were beaten with stripes, boxed with the 
fist, and pounded with the elbow, days without 

" In the midst of these sufferings, they remem- 
bered the ancient sayings of the elders, and prayed ^ 


beneath the bushes, though the rains poured upon 
them, or the mosquitoes, the gnats, the leeches, or 
the horseflies bit them. The elders said, ' Chil- 
dren and grandchildren, as to the Karen nation, 
their God will yet save them.' Hence, in their 
deep affliction, they prayed, ' If God will save us, 
let him save speedily. We can endure these suf- 
ferings no longer. Alas ! where is God ? ' 

"Sometimes the Burmans would kidnap the 
Karens in Siam, and carry them up to Ava, to the 
presence of the king ; and, thus separated from 
father or mother, husband or wife, child or grand- 
cl#Id, they yearned for each other, and many sick- 
ened and died on the way, before reaching the 
monarch's feet. Sometimes the Siamese kidnapped 
the Karens in Burmah, and subjected them to like 
treatment. The Karens in Siam knew that those 
whom the Siamese brought from Burmah were 
their relatives, and their tears flowed when they 
saw them ; yet they dared not tell the Siamese, or 
supplicate for them. So those in Burmah, when 
they saw the Burmans leading away the Karens 
they had kidnapped in Siam, knew they were their 
cousins ; yet they dared not speak or entreat for 
them ; for if they said they were their relations, 
or begged for them, death was the immediate con- 
sequence. Moreover, the Karens dared not dwell 
near the cities; for the Burmans took away all 
their rice and paddy, and every thing they had, 
and carried off their women by force. Hence 
they went far off, and dwelt on the streamlets, and 
in the gorges of the mountains. After all, the 
rulers sometimes took their paddy ; and, in a state 
of starvation, they would eat at random the roots 
and leaves of the jungle, and thus great numbers 


died. Sometimes the rulers assembled them to- 
gether near the city, where, having nothing to eat, 
great numbers died of sickness and starvation. 
Sometimes they would have to carry rice for sol- 
diers under march, and being unable to cultivate 
their fields, great numbers died of hunger from 
this cause. Then, those whom the rulers called, 
if unable to go, either from sickness in their fami- 
lies, or in their own persons, had to give money to 
the officers that came, and money for the rulers 
that sent them ; and if they had no money, they 
were compelled to borrow of the Burmans, and 
thus became their slaves. * 

" Furthermore, the Karens were not permitted 
to go into the presence of the rulers. They were 
only allowed to hold a little communication with 
the Burman that was set over them. At one time, 
in the days of Diwoon, when the Karens were fast 
dying off with starvation, and were so employed 
that they could not cultivate the land, my uncle, 
who is a chief, determined to go and ask the gov- 
ernor to give the Karens liberty to cultivate the 
land and raise provisions to a small extent. So 
he went in to Diwoon ; but he was thrown into 
prison immediately. His brethren had no rice to 
bring him, and they could feed him there only 
with the stems of wild plantain-trees, the male 
blossoms with their spathes, and the young shoots 
of bamboos. 

" Great Ruler, the ancestors of the Karens 
charged their posterity thus : ' Children and grand- 
children, if the thing come by land, weep ; if by 
water, laugh. It will not come in our days, but it 
will in yours. If it come first by water, you will 
be able to take breath ; but if first by land, you 


will not find a spot to dwell in.' Hence, when 
the Karens were in the midst of their intense suf- 
ferings, they longed for those that were to come 
by water to come first. 

"Again, the elders said, 'When the Karens 
have cleared the Hornbill city * three times, hap- 
piness will arrive.' So when the Bur man rulers 
made them clear it the last time, they said among 
themselves, ' Now we may suppose happiness is 
coming, for this completes the third time of clear- 
ing the Hornbill city ; ' and true enough, for be- 
fore they had finished, we heard that the white 
foreigners had taken Rangoon! Then the Bur- 
man rulers made the Karens carry stones and 
throw them into Tavoy River, that the foreign ships 
might not be able to come up. They compelled 
them also to become soldiers, and to muster, each 
one with a bow and quiver ; and as they had no 
guns, every one had to arm himself also with a 
cudgel ; for the Burmans said, that, when the for- 
eigners got on land, they would be unable to walk, 
and might be beaten to death with sticks. When, 
however, the news came that the foreigners had 
entered the mouth of Tavoy River, the Karens 
let themselves down over the wall of the city by 
night, and fled into the jungles. Then the Karens 
all ran and secreted themselves, both men, and 
women, and children; cooking food only when 
the smoke could be concealed by the clouds and 
vapors; for they were apprehensive that, if the 
Burmans were overcome, they would fly also, and 
trace them by the smoke. Some of the men in 

* The site of an old city, near Tavoy, which the Karens were 
called in to clear occasionally, when the trees grew up over it. 


the city were unable to get away, and remained 
till it was taken ; and some that fled were unable 
to find their families, they having previously se- 
creted themselves. In a little more than ten days, 
however, we heard that the foreigners had taken 
possession, and that those who wished to go to the 
city had liberty. Then the Karens rejoiced, and 
said, ' Now happiness has arrived. The thing has 
come by water. Now we may take breath.' And 
those that were concealed returned to their homes, 
with their wives and little ones. 

" The Karens soon learned that the foreigners 
were not vile, like the Burmans ; and they came 
to the city frequently, and the women with them. 
Formerly the women were afraid of the Burmans, 
and dared not come to the city ; so they had never 
seen it. Besides, it was very pleasant to look at 
the foreign soldiers, standing in straight rows ; 
and, as they were quiet and civil, the Karens 
brought their wives and little ones to look at them. 
Then we remembered the words of the prophet, 
who said, ' See, see, the white foreigners ! the 
white foreigners ! They stand gracefully, sit 
gracefully, eat gracefully, drink gracefully, sleep 
gracefully, dwell gracefully, go gracefully, return 
gracefully, speak gracefully, talk gracefully ; ' and 
he had sung, — 

' The sons of God, the white foreigners, 
Dress in shining black and shining white. 
The white foreigners the children of God, 
Dress in shining black and shining red.' 

" And so we saw them. They came with black 
soldiers and white soldiers, and the rulers were 
dressed just as the prophet had said. We had 


never seen white foreigners before; but we had 
heard the elders say, ' As to the white foreigners, 
they are righteous. They were the guides of God 
anciently ; so God blessed them, and they sailed in 
ships and cutters ; and can cross oceans, and 
reach lands.' The elders said further, that the 
Karens were originally seven brethren, of whom 
the white foreigners were the youngest. Still the 
generation before us, that told us these things, had 
never seen them, and knew not how they looked. 
They merely related what the elders said an- 
ciently. Through the goodness of God, my gen- 
eration is permitted to see them. The elders 
further sung, in relation to the white foreigners, 
as follows : — 

' The sons of God, the white foreigners, 
Obtained the words of God. 
The white foreigners, the children of God, 
Obtained the words of God anciently.' 

" Great Ruler, afterwards we heard that, after 
staying three years, the white foreigners would re- 
turn. Then we wept aloud. We said to each 
other, ' If the foreigners go away, the race of the 
Karens will be wholly cut off; ' for in the days of 
Alompra and Diwoon,* they died like dogs, whole 
families often dying off together ; and about the 
time the white foreigners arrived, the Burmans 
were preparing to make an end of them, having 
assembled them together near the city. But the 
Karens having heard reports that the white for- 
eigners were coming, they prayed diligently for 
their arrival. The prophet, too, sung at worship, — 

* Alompra was a courageous chief, who, about a century ago, 
usurped the royal power among the Burmans. Of Diwoon I find no 
information. He was, doubtless, an individual of some distinction at 
a more recent date. — E. 


♦ The city of Ava says, she is great ; 
She is not equal to the heel of God's foot. 
The city of Ava says, she is exceedingly great ; 
She is not equal to the sole of God's foot.' 

" Thus they sung, and prayed, that the white 
foreigners might come. When they arrived, the 
Karens in Burmah and Siam heard of each other, 
and saw each other. 

" After the foreign rulers and their soldiers had 
been here a short time, the white foreign teacher 
Boardman arrived, and came into the jungles, and 
preached the words of God. We gave attention, 
and remembered that the elders said, the white 
foreigners had obtained the words of God, that 
they were our younger brethren, and that they 
were righteous. Again, the elders said, — 

' Who created the world in the beginning .' 
God created the world in the beginning. 
God appointed every thing : 
God is unsearchable.' 

'' All things in heaven and on earth, O children 
and grandchildren, God created them. ' Never 
forget God. Pray to him every day and every 
night.' And before the arrival of the white for- 
eigners, a prophet, singing, said, — 

' Great mother comes by sea, 
Comes with purifying water, the head water. 
The teacher comes from the horizon : 
He comes to teach the little ones.' 

Hence not a few of the Karens believed. 

" We next heard that teacher Wade, at Maul- 
main, had made Karen books ; so teacher Mason 
sent up Kau-la-pau and myself, in a ship, to learn. 
Then many of the Karens, here and there, learned 
to read their own language ; and we remembered 


that the elders had said again, * Children and 
grandchildren, the Karen books will yet arrive. 
When their books arrive, they will obtain a little 
happiness.' Therefore, O great Ruler, God hav- 
ing given thee great goodness and kindness, we 
are very happy. Now, the Karens, though they 
be maidens, or mothers, or children, may come 
and dwell in the city ; may dress as they wish ; 
put on what they wish ; and adorn themselves as 
they wish. It was not so in the days of the Bur- 
mans : we could never do so then. In the provi- 
dence of God, how numerous are the reasons that 
we have to praise thy goodness and thy benefi- 
cence ! May God establish thy towns and thy 
cities, thy lands and thy territories. Through thy 
acts, the Karens, the children of poverty, and the 
sons of the forest, breathe with ease. May God, 
then, make great thy power and thy might, till thy 
government shall embrace all the children of pov- 
erty throughout the earth. And may God, whom 
thou worshippest, do good unto thee, and watch 
over thee, and thy children and grandchildren. 

" Again the elders said, ' Children and grand- 
children, when the white foreigners and the Karens 
fight, then happiness will arrive. And how will 
they fight? The white foreigners will come in 
ships, and shoot at the Karens ; and the loads of 
their cannon and muskets will be changed to sa- 
vory plantains and sweet sugar-cane; and the 
Karens will eat them. On the other hand, the 
Karens, armed with adzes, will go and make holes 
in their ships. Then the Karens and white for- 
eigners will recognize each other as brethren ; and 
one will say, "O my younger brother!" and the 
other will say, " O my elder brother 1 " And they 


will become real brethren, and there will be peace 
and happiness.' Now, the white foreign teachers, 
that preach Jesus Christ, the Son of God, came 
by ship; and before the people understood what 
they heard, they contradicted; but the teachers 
talked to them till they understood, and then they 
knew that God [whom the teachers preached] was 
the One God; and the teachers made us books, 
and were thus able to teach us. Great Ruler, for- 
merly the Karens had no books, and when they 
wished to learn to read, they went to the Burmese, 
or Siamese, or Taling kyoungs.* There they 
made them pull up weeds around the pagodas, car- 
ry bricks to build new ones, and go out and beg 
food, and they beat them and whipped them ; so 
that they could never learn well. 

" Through thy favor and kindness, the people 
of my generation are very happy ; and we hear 
again, and more perfectly, of God, of whom our 
ancestors told us. Great Ruler, though we heard 
anciently of God from our ancestors, yet, through 
the persecutions of the Burmans and Talings, we 
gave random worship to images ; but we still 
hoped that our God would save us, and we prayed 
to him on our pillows. Now, through thy good- 
ness and beneficence, we worship God as we please. 
May God establish thy city and thy generation. 

*' Great Ruler, our ancestors said that the white 
foreigners were our younger brethren ; that they 
guided away God anciently, and obtained books 
and ships ; and that they are more skilful than all 
other nations, and are able to reach lands, and cross 
oceans. Furthermore, the elders said, ' When their 

* Monasteries of the priests. — E. 


younger brother arrives, the Karens will be happy. 
Their younger brother was able to keep in compa- 
ny with God.' And now we see you ! We are a 
worthless nation. We are the poorest of races. 
We are a tribe of wild men. We are a nation of 
slaves to all people. Among fools, we are the 
greatest fools. Now, through the goodness of 
God, the white foreign teachers have taught us to 
read, and I am enabled to write to thee. 

" Great Ruler, thy goodness and beneficence to 
the Karen nation we shall never forget, down to 
the generations of our children and grandchildren. 
Great Ruler, forget us not ; cast us not away into 
the hands of other nations. We are exceedingly 
happy in thee. Thou art as he of whom we sung 
anciently, — 

♦ The Great Chief; his words are bliss, 
As the impervious shade of the great banyan.' 

" We are happy in thee, far above all other na- 
tions that ever ruled us before ; but we fear that 
the 'White foreigners will go back, and the Siamese 
and the Burmese will come and persecute us again. 
Great Ruler, we, the Karen nation, have no cities, 
no towns, no villages, no hamlets. We are now 
dwelling beneath thy shadow, and are exceedingly 
happy, and obtain our sustenance with great ease. 
Because thou hast been merciful, may God have 
mercy on thee, generation after generation. If 
thou givest us up again into the hands of the Bur- 
mans, our race will really be brought to an end. 
Formerly, we dwelt as in the midst of a thorn 
bush; but in thee, we dwell as on a mat spread 
down to sleep upon. May God make thee joyful 
and happy, generation after generation. 


" The white foreign teachers have preached the 
words of God, and some of us have become disci- 
ples. Great Ruler, it is of thy goodness and be- 
neficence. Further, the Karens, the sons of the 
forest, a nation of slaves, a people of the deepest 
poverty, thou hast freed from taxes. Thy good- 
ness and beneficence is so great, that we rejoice 
till we can rejoice no more. And the people of 
thy nation, the white foreigners that live with us 
here, the ruler of the city and the ruler of the 
provinces, the officers and soldiers, the doctors and 
teachers, are good men. Great Ruler, through 
thy acts I believe the words of the elders. The 
elders said, * The white foreigners are righteous. 
They will not do any thing that is improper. 
They do not act regardless of every thing j like 
the Talings and Burmans. They never use com- 
pulsion. They dwell with truth. When they ar- 
rive, the Karens will be happy,' I believe these 
words. The Karens have been slaves, generation 
upon generation. When demands were made of 
us, we must give, whether we had whereof to give 
or not ; when they called us, we must go, night or 
day, whether able to go or not ; they made us sick ; 
they persecuted us ; they killed us, like insects. 
But thou, Great Ruler, thou hast snatched us from 
the hands of an evil people. Truly, thou hast 
bought us, and then given us our liberty for 
nought. Truly, thou art righteous; truly, thou 
dvvellest with truth, as our ancestors said. Verily, 
thou dost love ; verily, thou art merciful. The 
goodness and beneficence of thine acts to us are 
so great, that they go far beyond what we could 
ever conceive. May God be with thee. Thy 
goodness and beneficence in freeing us, and mak- 



ing us happy, we will never forget, but tell it to 
succeeding generations, as our ancestors told us 
of the white foreigners anciently. Great Ruler, 
may God watch over thee, and do good unto thee, 
and widen out thy kingdom and territories, gen- 
eration after generation, forever." 

A IVeddins: Procession. 



First Journey into the Jungle^ to Kliat. — Second, to Thalu 

— Seeks his Countrymen in the City of Tavoy. — First 
Journey across the eastern Mountains, to Tshiekku. — 
Second Visit to Tshiekku. — Third Journey to Tshiekku. 

— .Accompanies Mr. Boardman on his first Tour among 
the Karens. — Visits the Southern Karens, at Toung- 
byouk, Pai, and Palouk. — Teaches School at Tshiek- 
ku. — Goes to Siam. — Journey into the Maulmain Karen 
Jungles. — Returns to Tavoy with Mr. Boardman. 

Immediately after his baptism, Ko Thah-byu, 
accompanied by two of his countrymen, that were 
present, left Tavoy to visit the Karens beyond the 
eastern mountains, in the valley of the Tenasserim. 
The rains, which had commenced, were so power- 
ful, and the streams so high, that he was com- 
pelled to abandon his intentions; but he turned 
aside, on his return, to a little settlement of Karens 
on Khat Creek, a few miles south of his path, and 
a short day's walk from town. " It was planting 
season," says one of my Karen correspondents, 
who lived there, " and we had gone to plant on 
the hill sides, when one of those, who had been 
left behind in the house, came and said, ' Here is 
a man come from the up country, to trace his 
genealogy to us : come and listen.' We went and 
found Ko Thah-byu, who preached and explained 
the catechism. All gave attention, and Moung 
Khway resolved at once to become a Christian ; 
and he went with Ko Thah-byu, on his return to 
town, to see the teacher." This man, the first 


fruits of Ko Thah-byu's labors, was brother to the 
chief of the village, and became a most valuable 
member of the church. He was an efficient aux- 
iliary in the evangelizing of his village, nearly the 
whole of whose inhabitants ultimately became 
Christians. At the time of his baptism, Mr. 
Boardman writes concerning him, " He appears 
remarkably well. With but little opportunity of 
receiving instruction, he has made great progress 
in Christian knowledge and practice. His expe- 
rience and heavenly-mindedness might, perhaps, 
put many a worldly-minded Christian to the blush." 

Mr. Boardman, recording his return, says, *' Ko 
Thah-byu, finding the rains very violent, and the 
brooks much swelled, was obliged to abandon his 
plan of visiting the Karen teacher's village. He 
returned last evening. During his absence, he 
met several people, to whom he spoke as he was 
able. Many of them heard with attention, and 
two of them accompanied him on his return, in 
order to gain further instruction. They profess a 
readiness to receive the gospel, and wish me to 
visit them after the rains." 

" Last evening, two respectable Karens, whom 
Ko Thah-byu saw in his late tour, called for 
further instruction. They live a day's journey 
from Tavoy. They profess a full belief of the 
truth of the gospel. May their professions prove 
to be sincere." 

In July, he visited another Karen settlement, 
Thalu, it is believed, where the writer of this 
Memoir subsequently found several converts. Mr. 
Boardman, noticing his return, says, " Ko Thah- 
byu, the Karen Christian, who went out five days 
ago to visit a Karen village, returned to-day, and 


says that all the people of the village listened to 
his words." 

While in town, he was busied in looking up his 
countrymen, who, for various purposes, occasionally 
visit the city. " About a month since," writes 
Mr. Boardman, in August, *' a very interesting 
young Karen was found by Ko Thah-byu, in the 
niche of a pagoda, where he had been fasting two 
days. Knowing only the religion of Gaudama, 
which he had heard from the Burmans, he had 
embraced it so far as to practise this austerity, in 
the hope of obtaining a great reward in a future 
state. Our Karen Christian explained to him 
the folly of fasting, as practised by the Burmans, 
and invited the young man to our house, where 
he paid a very serious attention to Christian in- 
struction. After learning the way of the Lord 
more perfectly, he took a Christian book and 
returned to his native forest. Our prayers ac- 
companied him. We all remarked something 
peculiarly interesting and amiable in his appear- 
ance. I have often wished to have him live with 
me, in hope that he might become a Christian, 
and a herald of the gospel. Yesterday, this young 
man returned to us, with three of his relations, 
to receive further instruction. After conversingf 
with me for some time, and attending Burman 
worship with us, he went to Ko Thah-byu' s apart- 
ment, where I heard them talking of the gospel 
till near midnight ; and at break of day, this 
morning, the conversation was renewed. This 
afternoon, he expressed a wish to live with me, 
in order to learn more fully about the true God 
and Savior. On my inquiring how long he would 
be willing to stay for this purpose, he replied, 


' Ten or twelve years, till I can learn fully about 
God and Christ. Many of the Karens will also 
come.' He is a youth of good understanding, 
quick apprehension, and amiable manners. He 
says, he wishes no longer to worship heaps of 
brick, but to know and serve the everliving and 
true God." 

He felt the greatness of the missionaries' work^. 
and the inadequacy of the means in operation to 
carry it forward ; and hence we find in Mr. Board- 
man's journal of the following day, "After evening 
worship in Burman, the Karen Christian, having 
related the adventures of the day, said to me, 
* There is one subject on which I wish to await 
your decision : I wish you would write to Amer- 
ica, for more teachers to be sent out.' " 

About the end of September, before the rains 
had fully closed, he started again to visit the east- 
ern Karens. He went to the village of Tshiekku, 
where the teacher, or prophet, that brought the 
sacred book* to Mr. Boardman, lived with his 

Moung Sekkee, the Karen who was his compan- 
ion and guide over the mountains, writes, " Teach- 
er Boardman preached to me the words of God, and 
I understood a little, but not fully : Ko Thah-byu 
taught me in Karen, so that I understood perfectly; 
and I went with him to Tshiekku, where the peo- 
ple listened, and built a zayat for the teacher, who 
soon after came to visit them, when Moung So 
and Moung Kya asked for baptism." The two men 
last mentioned have been valuable assistants many 
years; and the latter writes, "When I heard, at 

* See Appendix — ICaren Prophets. 


first, that a teacher, with a Karen man and his wife, 
had come down from Maulmain, I asked the man's 
name, and was told Ko Thah-byu. Then I said, 
* What has he come for ? ' ' To preach the words,' 
was the reply, ' of the God that made the heavens 
and the earth.' So I went to Tavoy to hear ; and 
after Ko Thah-byu had preached to me, I said to 
him, ' Brother, truly it is the word of God ! Come 
out and preach at Tshiekku.' He asked permis- 
sion of teacher Boardman, who readily consented, 
and he afterwards came out, and lived with the 
Bookho,* going out from his house to visit me 
and others, and then returning. The Bookho, 
however, had a quarrel with his wife, and would 
not obey the word of God; and having heard of 
it, I went to Ko Thah-byu, and said. Brother, 
come and live with me ; and he came." 

Mr. Boardman, noticing his return from this 
journey, says, " Ko Thah-byu returned from the 
villages, where he has spent the last ten days in 
making known the gospel to his countrymen. 
The Karen teacher, or rather conjurer, mentioned 
in former journals, came with him, and appeared 
somewhat tamed and in his right mind. He 
says now that he will practise no more joger's 
tricks and ceremonies, but will, from the heart, 
worship the eternal God and his Son, Jesus 

He soon after made a second visit, and returned 
to town again, in November, with ten converts. 
Mr. Boardman says, " Ko Thah-byu returned from 
the villages, with ten of his countrymen, several 
of whom profess to have become converts to 

* The teacher, or p'ophet, referred to above. 


Christ. One of the more promising is the chief- 
tain before mentioned." 

About a rrjonth afterwards, he made a third tour 
to the same settlement, and was in town again 
in January, 1829, to conduct Mr. Boardman into 
the jungles. Mr. Boardman writes at this time, 
/'Three days since, two Karens arrived, who had 
travelled three days' journey in expectation of 
findinor me at the Karen settlements : but not 
finding me there, they came three days' journey 
farther, to see me at my own house. They ap- 
pear very desirous of receiving Christian instruc- 
tion ; and Ko Thah-byu is unwearied in his efforts 
to impart it. One of them came from the prov- 
ince of Mergui ; and he states that the Karens in 
Tavoy, Mergui, and Tenasserim, have all heard 
of us, and are desirous of listening to our instruc- 

A few days afterwards, Mr. Boardman, accom- 
panied by Ko Thah-byu, made his first tour among 
the Karens. After Mr. Boardman had preached 
in Burman, Ko Thah-byu was in the habit of 
interpreting as much of the discourse as he could 
remember into Karen ; and on other occasions, as 
opportunity offered, he preached himself Once, 
Mr. Boardman remarks, " After breakfast, Ko 
Thah-byu discoursed to them in Karen, an hour 
or two, on the being and perfections of God ; " 
and in another place, " One man, who had heard 
the gospel repeatedly from Ko Thah-byu, present- 
ed a request for Christian baptism." 

He returned to town with Mr. Boardman, and 
was busily employed there in searching out the 
Karens, who visited the city on business. In 
March, Mr. Boardman writes, " A very respecta- 


ble-looking old Karen, said to be the chief of his 
nation in the province of Mergui, was introduced 
by Ko Thah-byu. He states, that all the Karens 
in Mergui and Tenasserim have heard of us ; and 
his great desire to see us had brought him thus far 
from home. After listening to the gospel a while, 
he took his leave, saying he would return in the 

*'Ko Thah-byu has concluded, with our appro- 
bation, to go out on a missionary tour of several 
weeks. It is surprising how magnanimous a nat- 
urally weak man becomes, when the spirit of 
Christ and the love of souls inspire him. This 
poor Karen, who, to say the least, does not excel 
in intellectual endowment or human learning, is 
continually devising new and judicious plans of 
doing good. ' There are,' says he, ' the districts 
of Pai and Palau, and several other places near 
the mouth of the river, where there are many Ka- 
ren settlements which I wish to visit. There are 
also many Karens in the province of Mergui ; I 
wish to declare the gospel to them all. And be- 
fore long, I want to go across, and visit the Ka- 
rens in Siam, and afterwards to visit Bassein, my 
native place, near Rangoon. Many Karens live 
there.' Such are, in general, this old man's plans. 
An event has occurred this eveningr which seems 

• 1 • • 

a providential intimation of present duty. The 
old Karen chief, who was here this morning, has 
desired Ko Thah-byu to accompany him to Mer- 
gui in his boat, promising at the same time to see 
that he shall be accompanied from one Karen 
settlement to another, till he shall reach this prov- 
ince again. Ko Thah-byu is inclined to go, and 
expects to be absent five or six weeks." 


A few days after, Mr. Boardman adds, "A good 
number of Karens are now with us, and Ko Thah- 
byu is engaged day and night in reading and ex- 
plaining to them the words of eternal life. It 
seems as though 'the time for favoring this people 
had come." 

Mah A, Ko Thah-byu's wife, was baptized on 
the twentieth of this month, March. Mr. Board- 
man, recording her examination, remarks, '* She 
was formerly very ignorant and very wicked ; but, 
under the care and instruction of her husband 
and Mrs. Boardman, she has, within the last few 
months, become a very hopeful inquirer, and we 
are encouraged to hope that she is now truly 
converted. She requested baptism three months 

Immediately after his wife's baptism, Ko Thah- 
byu started on his tour to the south, intending to 
go as far as Mergui. He did not, however, ac- 
company the Karen chief previously referred to, 
as " the chief of his nation in the province of 
Mergui ; " and, as this is the last notice of that 
chief, it may be here remarked, that he was bap- 
tized by me in the year 1837. He has been a 
valuable member of the church ; and his descend- 
ants, who are almost as numerous as Jacob's when 
he went down into Egypt, have very generally fol- 
lowed his footsteps into the baptismal waters. Ko 
Thah-byu was accompanied, on this journey, by 
Moung Sekkee, who writes, "We went to Toung- 
byouk and Menthah Creek, where we preached the 
word of God to Sau Co-klay, and Sau Yu-khayj 
and then we went to Kyouk-toung, where we 
preached to Sau Ke-krau and family." These 
places are in the neighborhood of Toung-byouk, 


and the persons mentioned were baptized, several 
years afterwards. " We next," continues Sekkee, 
"went to Pai and Palouk, preaching to both Pghos 
and Sgaus; but no one listened. At Palouk, Ko 
Thah-byu was taken sick." Here, sick among 
strangers and unbelievers, it might be supposed 
that he could ill spare his only Christian com- 
panion ; but the preaching of the gospel was more 
to him than his own comfort. Hence Sekkee 
adds, " He made me go on to preach at Pyeek- 
hya, and leave him behind at Palouk." His health 
was such that he felt wholly unable to go on to 
Mergui ; and as soon as he was well enough to 
travel again, they reluctantly turned their faces 
towards Tavoy, travelling slowly, and preaching 
in all the Karen settlements by the way, through 
which the zigzag path led, which they had cho- 
sen. The man with whom Ko Thah-byu staid, 
while sick in Palouk, was the first baptized in 
that settlement, in the year 1838, and is now one 
of the pillars of the church. In May, Mr. Board- 
man writes, " Ko Thah-byu arrived, having spent 
the last seven weeks in the wilderness, making 
known the gospel to his countrymen. His ac- 
count of his tour is interesting and encouraging. 
We are concerned, however, to find that he is in 
a bad state of health. May the Lord spare him 
for much more usefulness among his benighted 

The succeeding rains he spent principally teach- 
ing school near Tshiekku, the former scene of 
his labors. Moung Kya writes, " He came with 
his wife, and both lived with me ; and he taught 
us. how to worship God. When the dry season 
arrived, he said to me, ' Brother, it is very pleas- 


ant staying with thee, but my wife wishes to go 
and stay at Tshiekku.' So he placed his wife at 
Tshiekku, and went over the mountains to Thalu; 
and after his departure, his wife preached* the 
word of God at Tshiekku, till hearing that he 
was sick ; when we took her to where he was 

About this time, the rebellion took place in Ta- 
voy, and Mr. Boardman went up to Maulmain. 
On his return in October, he remarks, " Ko 
Thah-byu, it seems, has come to town twice 
since our absence ; but as he left his wife and 
two little brothers sick in the jungle, he returned 
to them before our arrival. They have passed 
through various hardships and perils since they 
left us at the wharf; but the Lord has delivered 
them out of them all, and blessed be his hoi) 

Two weeks afterwards, Ko Thah-byu arrived ; 
and after another preaching excursion of a few 
days in the jungle, he was in town again, when 
Mr. Boardman writes, " Moung So, the baptized 
Karen headman's mother having died lately, he 
fears that the other relatives of the deceased will 
wish to perform the heathenish customs practised 
among the people subsequent to the funeral ; and 
to counteract the bad effects of such practices, 
he proposes to erect a preaching zayat near the 
grave, and has invited Ko Thah-byu and his wife 
to go out with him, and * hold forth the word of 

* Mr. Judson remarks, in one of his journals, " Though I began 
to preach the gospel as soon as I could speak intelligibly, I have 
thought it hardly becoming to apply the term preaching to my imper- 
fect, desultory observations and conversations." — Throughout this 
book, the term is used so as to embrace the informal ways of making 
known the gospel, as defined above ; and it is so used by the natives. 



life,' while the heathens around may be indulging 
in their wicked customs.* I have consented to 
their going, and they are to leave to-morrow." 

About the middle of December, Mr. Boardman, 
returning from village preaching, remarks, " I 
had scarcely seated myself, when Ko Thah-byu, 
and two of the baptized, and several others from 
Moung So's village, arrived. After a short dis- 
course in Burman, prayers and thanks were of- 
fered to God, in both Burman and Karen. Twelve 
Karens were present. Of these, two had come 
to solicit baptism. Two were females, who have 
been listening to Mrs. Boardman's instructions 
for a year past. Three were headmen of villages, 
among whom was our hitherto faithful brother, 
Moung So.* He and Ko Thah-byu represent, that, 
during the heathenish ceremonies occasioned by 
the recent decease of his mother, Moung So and 
the other Christians of his village, having built a 
zayat near the grave, spent the time in listening 
to Christian instruction. They felt no reluctance, 
but a pleasure, at abandoning those heathenish 
practices in which they had formerly indulged." 

The day after KoThah-byu's arrival, he brought 
forward the subject of a journey into Siam. Mr. 
Boardman says, " We have concluded to encour- 
age Ko Thah-byu's going to Siam. The journey 
across will occupy six or seven days. He expects 
to leave to-morrow, and to be absent seven or 
eight weeks." And he adds, the next day, " Ko 
Thah-byu has long wished to go across the great 
mountains, and visit the Karens in Siam ; and 
having lately seen some of them, who urgently 

* See Appendix — Karen Funeral Rites. 


invited him over, he has laid the subject before 
us for our consideration and decision." And on 
the third day, he gives the conclusion : " Having 
solemnly commended the Karens, and especially 
Ko Thah-byu, to the divine blessing, we sent 
him on his journey this morning. I gave him 
an affectionate letter of introduction and recom- 
mendation, written in both Burman and English, 
to the people and ' the powers that be.' " 

Moung Sekkee, who accompanied him, writes, 
" When we reached Siam, the ruler there would 
not allow Ko Thah-byu to proceed. He said, 
that, were we to go on to the next town, the king 
would call him down to Bankok, because he was 
an elder. So he had to return, but I was permit- 
ted to go on ; and I preached, and found some 
that listened." 

When Mr. Boardman went up to Maulmain to 
take charge of that station, in April, 1830, Ko 
Thah-byu accompanied him ; and soon after his 
arrival, in company with Ko Myat-kyau, a Taling 
assistant, he left town to preach in the Karen 
jungles, as he had done at Tavoy. In July, Mr. 
Boardman writes, "A month ago, this same per- 
son, who speaks Karen tolerably well, set off in 
company with Ko Thah-byu to visit the Karen 
settlements up the river. I gave them a large 
supply of books and tracts for distribution. Four 
days ago, they returned delighted with their tour ; 
the Karens had received them in the same man- 
ner as those in Tavoy had previously received 
Ko Thah-byu. Many of them listened with the 
most encouraging attention to the message of 
redeeming love. Books were most eagerly re- 
ceived both by those who could read and those 



who could not; 'For' said they, 'we will ask 
others to read them to us.' Long before the 
close of their tour, their supply of books failed, 
ind Ko Myat-kyau was compelled to give away 
the books from his own private satchel. On their 
return, five Karens accompanied them to town, 
four of whom profess to be decided in embracing 
the gospel, and have applied for baptism; but 
though I believe I should get a unanimous vote 
in their favor from the whole native church, I 
feel inclined to delay their baptism for further 
proofs of sincerity and steadfastness." 

When Mr. Boardman returned to Tavoy, in 
November, he was again accompanied by^Ko 
Thah-byu, who, on their arrival, immediately de- 
parted for the Karen settlements to announce 
their return. Mr. Boardman, in his last journal, 
under date of December 16, writes, " In the af- 
ternoon, Ko Thah-byu arrived, with about forty 
in his train, all of whom, he said, had come to 
receive baptism. It appeared, that there were 
in the company all the disciples, except the two 
who had previously visited us ; so that we have 
now met with each one of the thirteen Karen dis- 
ciples, and a large number of others, who wish to 
be baptized. How pleasing is our interview ! 
But I am too feeble to describe it." 

Cleaning Cotton. 




Ko Thah-hyu's successful Labors. — Style of Preaching. — 
Scene of his Successes. — Shades in his Character. — 
Ignorance. — Love of Knowledge. — Passion. — Habits 
of Prayer. 

From the time that Mr. Boardman became 
unable to labor, to more than a year after the 
writer of this memoir joined the mission, with the 
very important exception of Mrs. Boardman's in- 
valuable and indefatigable labors with the people 
when they visited town, the whole watch care of 
the church, and the instruction of the inquirers, 
devolved on Ko Thah-byu ; and the numbers that 
were baptized within this period aiford the best 
comment on his labors. 

During the rains of 1831, he taught a school, 
as he had done the previous year, near Tshiekku, 
where the principal part of the Christians resided ; 
and his diligence in this department of labor was 
as conspicuous as in every other in which he 
engaged. Some of his pupils, at the close of the 
school, could repeat verbatim whole Burman tracts. 

Early in 1832, accompanied by Ko Thah-byu, 
I made an exploring tour through the province. 
We stopped about noon the first day at Shen 
Mouktee, an old walled town, but reduced to an 
inconsiderable village. This town is remarkable 
for containing the most famous idol in the prov- 
ince, it having been found (such is the received 
tradition) floating up the river on a peepul log, 
which stopped opposite the town ; and the little 
brass idol, from being a few inches high, has mi- 


raculously grown to the full size of a man beneath 
the spreading peepul, that sprung from the log on 
which it was found. Sometimes, when war or 
pestilence was approaching, it has been known to 
weep and moan. These, with other equally vera- 
cious legends, draw to its shrine all the piety of 
the province; and once a year the inhabitants 
of Tavoy have a/e7e for several days, when nearly 
the whole population make a pilgrimage to this 
most holy place. The occasion had passed, but 
some of the most devout still lingered there ; and 
while the Burman assistant and myself went round 
to some neighboring villages, distributing tracts, 
I left the old man to rest himself in one of the 
zayats, supposing that, as natives usually do, he 
would lie down to sleep. I was surprised, how- 
ever, on my return, to find him surrounded by a 
large congregation of Burmans, whose attention 
seemed to be riveted on his flashing eyes, less, 
apparently, from love, than from an indescribable 
power, that may best be compared to the fascinat- 
ing influence of the serpent over an unconscious 
brood of chickens. The first sentence I heard 
on coming up, was, " Your god was a black 
kula."* The words were uttered with such a 
peculiar expression of countenance, that the events 
of a dozen years have done nothing to efface the 
impression from my memory. " If ever a man 
hated idolatry," observed one of the brethren, in 
conversation, '« Ko Thah-byu did." Now, were 
I able to throw on canvass Ko Thah-byu's coun- 
tenance at that moment, as it exists in the picture 
gallery of my mind, every one that looked on it 

* That is, " a black foreigner." 


would go away and say, *' If ever a man hated 
idolatry, Ko Thah-byu did." 

On the evening of the fourth day, we were, 
for the first time, in the vicinity of Karens at 
Ka-nyen, and, though exceedingly fatigued, he 
requested permission to go and look up his coun- 
trymen. In like manner, when we came to Pai, 
the next stage, he could not be easy to rest in 
the Burman village over the Sabbath, but must 
go up the river to preach to the Karens. So it 
was through the whole journey. If Karens were 
accessible, no fatigue, no obstacles, would pre- 
vent his seeking them out ; but if not, he would 
attack the Burmans and their idolatry most un- 
mercifully, utterly heedless of the ridicule that 
they would sometimes heap upon him for being 
an ignorant Karen. At Palau, near the southern 
boundary of our journey, he was left a day or two 
to rest, on account of his infirmities, while I visited 
and returned from Pa-la ; but it appeared, on our 
return, that he had spent nearly the whole of both 
days in the kyoung, talking with the priests and 
all that came to visit them. In short, Ko Thah- 
byu had a passion for preaching ; and it was his 
ruling passion. On one occasion, when out in a 
boat with one of the missionaries at Maulmain, 
he was in evident danger of losing his life ; when 
he cried out, not for God to have mercy on his 
soul, as might have been expected, (that he felt 
was safe,) but, " I shall be drowned, and never 
more preach the word of God to the Karens." 

Mr. Boardman has recorded the following speci- 
men of his preaching : " Ko Thah-byu had been 
describing the folly and hurtfulness of worldly 
things and worldly tempers, and proceeded to say, 


* A worldly man is never satisfied with what he 
possesses. Let me have more houses, more lands, 
more buffaloes, more slaves, more clothes, more 
wives, more children and grandchildren, more 
gold and silver, more paddy and rice, more boats 
and vessels; let me be a rich man. This is his 
language. He thinks of nothing so much as of 
amassing worldly goods. Of God and religion he 
is quite unmindful. But watch that man. On a 
sudden, his breath departs, and he finds himself 
deprived of all he possessed and valued so much. 
He looks around, and sees none of his former pos- 
sessions. Astonished, he exclaims, "Where are 
my slaves? Where are my buffaloes? I cannot 
find one of them. Where are my houses and my 
chests of money ? What has become of all my 
rice and paddy that I laid up in store? Where 
are all the fine clothes, that cost me so much? 
I can find none of them. Who has taken them ? 
And where are my wives and my children ? Ah, 
they are all missing. I can find none of them. 
I am lonely and poor, indeed. I have nothing ! 
But what is this?"' The preacher here enters 
upon a description of the sufferings of the soul 
that is lost ; after which, he represents the rich 
man as taking up this lamentation : * O, what a 
fool have I been! I neglected God, the only Sa- 
vior, and sought only worldly goods while on 
earth, and now I am undone.' While the old 
man was preaching in this strain, every eye was 
fixed on him, and every ear was attentive. Soon 
after, he pursued the following strain : ' All in 
this world is misery. Sickness and pain, fear 
and anxiety, wars and slaughter, old age and 
death, abound on every hand. But hearken ! 


God speaks from on high, '' Children, why take ye 
delight, and seek happiness, in that low village of 
mortality, that thicket of briers and thorns 1 Look 
up to me ; I will deliver you, and give you rest 
where you shall be forever blessed and happy." ' " 

On reaching the eastern Karen settlements, 
which had been the principal scene of his labors, 
and, with the exception of a single visit of two or 
three days from Mr. Boardman, of his labors alone, 
the writer penned his impressions in the following 
language : — 

*' I cry no longer the horrors of heathenism ! 
but ' the blessings of missions : ' I date no longer 
from a heathen land. Heathenism has fled these 
banks. I eat the rice, and yams, and fruit, culti- 
vated by Christian hands ; look on the fields of 
Christians, and see no dwellings, but those inhab- 
ited by Christian families. I am seated in the 
midst of a Christian village, surrounded by a peo- 
ple that love as Christians, converse as Chris- 
tians, act like Christians, and look like Christians. 
If it be worth a voyage across the Atlantic to see 
the Shenandoah run through the Blue Ridge, 
surely a voyage around the globe would be amply 
repaid by a Sabbath spent in this valley." * 

The succeeding rains of 1832 he spent preach- 
ing and teaching school at Thalu, the Christian 

* Since writing the above, I have seen the " Histo.-y of American 
Missions," and learned, for the first time, that this description " has 
been censured as more glowing than true." The only persons able to 
censure understandingly, are those who have followed me over the 
same ground ; and, on subjecting it to their criticism, I am authorized 
to say, that the only objectionable word is land, in the clause, "I date 
no longer from a heathen land." " Land,'' it was remarked, " is too 
extensive in its application ; some word like station would be better." 
The criticism is just, but more was never intended by the word than 
the land on which I was located. Were I describing the resalts of 
my own labors, the pen would at once be drawn through the whole 
passage ; but it has reference solely to the labors of those that pre- 
ceded me ; and the man that could, then or now, approach a large 


settlement west of the mountains ; and, at their 
close, I went out and baptized a goodly number 
of his scholars and others, that he had brought 
under the influence of the truth. 

There is, however, a shade to the picture. 
Nothing can be more true than that Ko Thah-byu 
was a man " possessed of very ordinary abilities." 
Add to this, he was far advanced in life before he 
began to study :^ and it will be readily believed 
that the great body of the church members, 
especially the younger portion, soon knew more 
than their teacher, and hence his labors with them 
became less and less acceptable. He was adapted 
in a most special manner for a pioneer; and it 
would be singular, indeed, did we not believe in 
an overruling Providence, that, without any plans 
either on his own part or on that of the missiona 
ries, he became in succession the first Karen 
preacher to his countrymen in the districts of Ta- 
voy, Maulmain, Rangoon, and Arracan, Still it 
ought to be recorded, to the credit of his intellect- 
ual character, that he knew enough to value the 
knowledge which he had not acquired himself — no 
very common attainment, by the way, in Chris- 
tian lands. 

While in Tavoy he had a son ; and when asked 
what he was going to call him, his reply was not, 
'' Golden Flower," " Yellow Bird," " Silver Loins," 
or some other name in like taste, as was expected, 
but Joseph — the first Christian name conferred by 

Christian settlement of Karens, by a journey of three or four weeks 
through the unconverted heathen, and feel less or see less, must have 
a heart dead to Christian feeling, and eyes blind to moral beauty. 

" Who has no inward beauty, none perceives, 
Though all around is beautiful. 
The rill is tuneless to bis ear, who feels 
No harmony within." 


native parents in this country. " From the birth 
of this child," writes one of the brethren that was 
associated with Ko Thah-byu in Rangoon, *' he 
often spoke of his desire that he might live to be- 
come a preacher to the Karens. He was very 
anxious that he should early be taught to read, 
not only Burmese and Karen, but, as soon as prac- 
ticable, English, in order that he might get a bet- 
ter knowledge of things than he could through 
the two former languages. Considering his own 
ignorance, the desire that his son, and two other 
lads, of whom he was the guardian, should be 
better instructed than the common youth of the 
country, was remarkable. One great hinderance 
to the spread of light in all heathen countries, is 
the extreme apathy of the people in regard to liter- 
ary and scientific knowledge, as well as religious; 
and though he could not of course duly appreciate 
tiie value of either, he had discernment enough to 
perceive that the teachers and other foreigners, 
even those who were strangers to the influence of 
religion upon their own hearts, were incomparably 
wiser than his own people, in regard to things per- 
taining to this life. This was much more than 
the mass of either Burmans or Karens are willing 
practically to acknowledge. It is true, they often 
express astonishment at the superior skill of for- 
eigners in many species of mechanism, but without 
manifesting the least desire to become acquainted 
with that skill." 

Another sombre touch, and I pass on. " His 
natural temper was diabolical ; " and, " under the 
influence of the gospel, he would, at times, exhibit 
the relics of such a temper." His frailties, however, 
should be compared, not with those of one who 



was born under Christian influences, and has been 
subjected to the restraints of civilized society, 
but with those of a youth and manhood spent in 
a manner that makes me shudder to think of, and 
unwilling to repeat. 

Often, under the influence of passion, he said 
things that would be quite inexcusable in others ; 
but I shall not blot my pages with the painful de- 
tails. The recording angel has torn out the page 
on which they were registered, and trampled it 
beneath his feet. I am not the man to gather up 
the fragments. He must have wiry nerves, and 
an insensible heart, that could deliberately record 
the failings of a man, who " was in the habit of 
spending several hours dajly in prayer to God." 

" It is the sole prerogative of heaven 
Not to be tainted with the smallest error. 
But that immunity wa-B never given 
To earth." 

Assaying Silver. 



Returns to Maulmain. — Goes to Rangoon. — Visits the 
Karens. — Second Tour. — Spends the Rains at Maubee- 
— Great Success. — Burman Persecution. — Flees to 

Early in the year 1833, Ko Thah-byu left Ta- 
voy for Maulmain, where we find him immediately 
employed in preaching to his countrymen. Mr. 
Bennett writes, in February, " Several old, venera- 
ble, gray-headed Karens are here, from the wilder- 
ness, to whom Ko Thah-byu, who has just returned 
from Tavoy, has been communicating the precious 
truths of the gospel. Their sands are almost run, 
and they have spent their lives in ignorance of the 
one living and true God ; possibly, at the eleventh 
hour of their existence, they may be brought into 
the precious fold of the Redeemer. An old, gray- 
headed woman, a relative of his wife, has taken 
refuge with him from the persecuting spirit of 
her other relatives, who seem to feel that the old 
woman is only a trouble to them, she being near 
eighty years of age, and unable to do any thing 
for her own support. Thus too many are treated 
in this land of cruelty and idolatry. The old 
woman listens to the good news of salvation, and 
seems to feel a veneration for the truth. There is 
some reason to hope that she will yet become one 
of the few who profess to follow Jesus, in the hope 
of a glorious resurrection." 

He did not, however, remain long in Maul- 
main " In the spring of 1833," writes Mr. Ben- 


nett, •' he accompanied me to Rangoon. At that 
time, the Karens of Burmah pro^ej had never 
heard the gospel ; as no teachers, either native 
or foreign, had ever visited them. They had no 
knowledge that their language had been reduced 
to writing, and a tract printed in it. Neither had 
they heard that any of their countrymen had em- 
braced the religion of the Savior." 

*' Two days after his arrival in Rangoon, he 
leaves his family in the care of the teacher, and, 
with a Burman disciple for a guide, he is found 
making his way to the Karen villages in the vicin- 
ity of Rangoon. His labors, his appeals, his earn- 
estness, and his desire for the spiritual welfare 
of his countrymen, were not in vain. Very soon 
fruit began to appear, and inquirers multiplied." 

In his journal, Mr. Bennett writes, in April, 
"Ko Thah-byu, (the Karen apostle,) who came 
round with us in order to search out his country- 
men, who are scattered in the wilderness about 
us, and preach the gospel to them, this morning 
took his staff in his hand, accompanied by a Bur- 
man disciple, and departed, leaving his wife and 
child with us. May the spirit and zeal of a Paul 
oe with him, and abundant success attend his 

His return is noticed in May. ''Ko Thah-byu 
came this evening, having visited more than seven 
villages, and given a hundred and fifty tracts. He 
reports rather encouragingly. He has been among 
his countrymen, the Karens. At first, they were 
not disposed to listen to his message, but quietly 
telling them by degrees his object in visiting them, 
they listened. They said, if the new language for 
them was good, and there was no deception in it, 


they would attend to it by and by. They are very 
much afraid of the government." 

A few days afterwards, Mr. Bennett remarks, 
" Ko Thah-byu left us to-day for another tour 
among his countrymen. We earnestly pray that 
his nation may give him audience, and receive the 
words of eternal life." 

His return at the close of the month is thus re- 
corded : " Ko Thah-byu, who has been absent 
among the Karens more than a month, arrived to- 
day, with a nephew of his, a very respectable look- 
ing young man. One of the disciples, who lives 
at a distance, brought with him to-day the first 
Karen inquirer I have seen here. Ko Thah-byu 
had not before seen him. He lives only a few 
miles from this place, and appeared very well. 
He seemed anxious to know the truth. Though 
he understands Burmese pretty well, Ko Thah-byu 
had the pleasure to talk in his own language, and 
tell of the wonders of redeeming love. In the 
tour which he has just completed, he has distrib- 
uted two hundred tracts, and carried the news of 
a Savior from sin to some who were before igno- 
rant. In order to accomplish this, he has had to 
wade streams to his armpits, and sometimes 
through mud and water, as the rains fill the hollows. 
He relates an interesting account of his tour, and 
feels confident of ultimate success. He meets with 
much opposition from those of his countrymen who 
are Boodhists ; but those who are not give generally 
an attentive ear, as far as they dare, being very 
fearful of offending the Burmese government. 
There are several in the vicinity of a village where 
his brother is Saukai, or governor, who wish to 
learn to read ; and he thinks, if we should approve 


of it, of spending a month in endeavoring to teach 
them Karen. He feels very sanguine that if there 
v^^ere three converts, the work would spread rapid- 
ly. The work is the Lord's, and his cause will 

In July, the visit of another Karen inquirer to 
Mr. Bennett is thus recorded : " Another Karen 
inquirer called to-day. He is from the village of 
Thah-meing. Ko Thah-byu had given him a tract, 
on one of his excursions, which he had read, and, 
liking the contents, called to get more light on the 
way of salvation by Jesus Christ. The roads are 
so bad that it is nearly impossible for any to get 
into town." 

Ten days afterwards, he left Rangoon to spend 
the rains in Maubee. " Ko Thah-byu has left to- 
day,' says Mr. Bennett, *' for the Karen wilds, 
with three hundred more tracts. As the rains 
render itinerating nearly impracticable, he is per- 
mitted, on this tour, to attend to the teaching of a 
few of his countrymen in Maubee, who, he says, 
are very anxious to learn Karen." 

At the close of the rains in October, Mr. Ben- 
nett gives an animated view of the fruits of Ko 
Thah-byu's labors, that then began to appear, in 
the two following letters to Mr. Judson : — 

"R.ANGOON, October as, 1833. 
** Dear brother Judson : 

" We are in distress, and send to you 
for relief For the last several days, our house, 
and the small house of Ko Thah-byu, ten cubits 
square, have been thronged. As Ko Thah-byu 
has not been able to go out as soon as he had in- 
lended, in consequence of his wife's illness, the 


Karens are thronging us from Dalla, Leing, Mau- 
bee, Kya-dan, and many places I have not heard 
named, — men, women, and children, and all anx- 
iously inquiring about the religion of Jesus. One 
Saukai has formally requested baptism of me and 
the church, and several others have of Ko Thah-a, 
and Ko Thah-byu. They are all anxious for 
schools, and offer to build zayats for preaching, or 
schools, if some one will come and teach them. 
There are very many who already keep the Lord's 
day, read our tracts, and endeavor to instruct one 
another the best they can. They daily read the 
tracts, and all get together in their families, and 
sing, and pray to the God who rules in heaven. 
The heads of families not only do this themselves, 
but they teach their children. They declare they 
have left off drinking spirit, and, as far as they 
understand, endeavor to practise according to the 
requirements of the Scriptures. 

" What shall we do? Ko Thah-byu is only one, 
among a thousand. He cannot preach the gospel, 
and teach these people to ' read in their own lan- 
guage' the precious truths of God's word, at the 
same time. We want one man to go to Bassein ; 
another to go up to Prome, and along the river ; 
another to Maubee, and vicinity, towards old Pegu 
— all these to preach the gospel ; and we certainly 
need as many more for schoolmasters. Can you 
send us any assistance 1 If so, do ; for Christ and 
his cause require it. I hope Ko Thah-byu will be 
able soon to go out, and do something; but he 
cannot do all alone. There surely is the sound 
of rain ; and if I might not subject myself to the 
imputation of enthusiastic, I would say ' of much 
rain.' O, could we go among these people, as 


freely and easily as in the provinces, I have no 
doubt hundreds would be added to the Lord. 

"I think the Karens here superior to those in 
the provinces, so far as I have seen ; and, could 
they be collected together, and civilized, and 
Christianized, they would be a lovely nation. 
When will this happy time arrive? Hasten it, 
Lord, in thine own good time, for Jesus' sake. 
" I am yours affectionately." 

" Rangoon, JVov. 11, 1833. 
** Dear brother Judson : 

" I have only a few moments to write, 
being full of business, and having only a few min- 
utes before the vessel leaves. Suffice it to say, 
four of the Karens were, yesterday, baptized, and 
are the first fruits of the plentiful Karen harvest, 
which these ripening fields present to our view. 
We want help, we want faith, we want patience, 
and perseverance ; we want a mind, (to say all in a 
word,) the same mind which was found in our 
dear Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. Pray for us, 
and for the Karens who are looking up to us for 
the bread of life, their eyes brightening as they 
hear of Jesus and the way to heaven. There have 
but very few, as yet, called on us, something like 
fifty or sixty ; but they all say, * In a few weeks, 
(when we have gathered in our rice,) we will 
come, with our wives and children, all of whom 
wish to hear the gospel. Our neighbors, too, will, 
many of them, come.' And some of those who 
say thus, also add, ' When we come, we shall ask 
for baptism ! ' Those who have just been here 
(and it is only a few hours since a party of twelve 
left) we have examined. Some of them appear to 


be true disciples of Jesus, while one or two were 
regular atheists. One man, especially, says he 
does not believe there is any God^ or heaven, or 

-' We have good reason to believe the work is 
genuine among the Karens, if opposition is a test ; 
for the devil is sorely disturbed, and mustering his 
forces. What the issue of the campaign will be 
we cannot say ; but those who were yesterday bap- 
tized, said, if the Woon-gee * should issue an 
order to cut off their heads, then let him cut them 
off: they believed in Jesus; and if they should be 
killed, they would go where Jesus is, and be hap- 
py. I could relate many interesting anecdotes of 
these simple sons of the jungle, had I time. Suf- 
fice it to say, one very respectable man, a Saukai, 
says he formerly was a great drunkard ; but, for 
the last six months, he has not drank a drop, not 
since he first heard of Jesus from Ko Thah-byu. 
He says he believes, and will come, by and by, 
and be baptized. He is said to be a very influen- 
tial man. They all talk more or less Burmese, 
and our examinations are in that language, which 
is far better than to draw it through an interpreter. 
We have proposed to some of the young men (who 
also understand Burmese) to go around to Mani- 
la main, and learn Karen, and return and teach 
^their countrymen ! I hope, in a few months, some 
yvill go. They would now, if their rice were gath- 
ered. 1 hope they will go; and, if so, what they 
will see, and hear, and learn, I do hope will do 
more to keep their countrymen from believing the 
Burmese, than years of our labor. There were 

* A Burman magistrate. — EI 


thirty present at worship, yesterday morning ; after 
which, the four Karens were examined and re- 
ceived. Afterwards, Ko Thah-a accompanied 
them to the king's tanks, and baptized them." 

Extracts from Mr. Bennett's journal will be 
continued, in which the labors and successes of 
Ko Thah-byu are recorded so fully and graphi- 
cally, that little more is left to be desired. Un- 
der various dates in October and November, he 
writes, " A Karen from Maubee called, who said 
he had been in town three days, and had not 
before found our house. He said he would call 
again, and staid but a short time. '. 

*' The Karen mentioned yesterday called with . 
one of his neighbors ; both of whom appeared ex- 1 
treraely well. The one who has not been here 
before, says that he has several of our tracts, 
which were given him by Ko Thah-byu, which he 
reads, and then bows and prays to the eternal 
God. He asked, anxiously, what more he should 
do to enter heaven. 

*' After worship, Moung-Thah, (a Saukai,) men- 
tioned August 26th, came forward, and formally 
asked for baptism. He bore a good examination, ] 
and I really believe he is one of the chosen of 
God ; but, as he is the first who has come out, 
we thought best for him to wait a short time, 
that we might become more acquainted. We 
have the best reason to hope the good work of 
the Spirit is operating among the Karens of 
Burmah, and our prayers are, * O Lord, smile 
upon the poor, ignorant, and oppressed Karens of 
Burmah.' This is the first Karen about Ran- 
goon, who has asked for baptism. O that he 


may be only one of ten thousand, and this the 
commencement of a new era in this idolatrous 
empire ! 

** As Ko Thah-byu has been kept at home by 
the illness of his wife, the Karens are calling on 

" A large party of Karens from Dalla called 
to-day. Ko Thah-byu's house is thronged from 
morn to night, and our veranda below, by people 
who have come to the festival." 

" Ko Thah-byu complains that the Karens 
throng his house, so that it is breaking down. 
Crowds have all day long been coming and going, 
* and he has been busy preaching from morn till 
- night. They are here from various parts of the 
country, and many he has not seen before. They 
are very urgent from Bassein and Dalla, on the 
south of us, and west from Maubee and vicinity 
on the north, that Ko Thah-byu, or some Karen 
teacher, should come among them and teach them 
to read, and preach to them the gospel. They 
offer, of their own accord, to build zayats and 
school-houses. O for laborers to enter this whi- 
tened field, and gather the golden grain ! " 

" Our house has been thronged, to-day, by Ka- 
rens from various places around Rangoon, who 
listened most attentively to the gospel. The Ka- 
l-v reus here, generally, understand Burmese pretty 
K. well, so that an interpreter is not needed. Poor 
people ! how my heart has been affected for you 
7 ^-^^y> when, hearing the honest, simple truth, 
^ foil confessed that you were ignorant, and wished 
I instruction ! How unlike the proud, Pharisaic 
p Burmese, who feel proud that they are not like 
other men, especially not like the poor Karen ! " 


" Lord's day. After worship, three Karens 
came forward, and asked for baptism. Two of 
them passed most admirable examinations, and 
perhaps the third would, could he have conversed 
as well in Burmese. The native brethren seemed 
surprised at the readiness of their answers, and 
the correct notions they seemed to possess of gos- 
pel truth. They evidently appeared to have been 
taught by the Spirit. These men say, that from 
the first of their hearing of Jesus from Ko Thah- 
byu, six months since, they have believed, and 
prayed daily to the eternal God. They keep the 
Lord's day, and meet together to read the tracts, 
and instruct each other. One of them says, that, 
not long since, he was tempted, by a neighbor 
and his wife, to join them in the worship or feed- 
ing of the Nats, but he refused, saying, ' He 
meant to worship Jesus Christ to the end of his 
life.' The neighbor then asked if Jesus could 
save him from the power of the Nats. He said 
he did not know, but he had been told so, and 
he believed it. He knew the Nats could not save 
him from sickness or death, though he should feed 
them ever so much ; and he meant to go to Ran- 
goon, as soon as he could, and find out more of 
Jesus Christ. When told that this neighbor of 
his was made use of by Satan to tempt him to 
sin, he said he did not know, but it seemed very 
much like it. As the Saukai, mentioned Oct. 13, 
could not come to-day, having a lame foot, and 
as we wish to be more thoroughly acquainted with 
these men, they were advised to wait until the 
next Lord's day, or some other opportunity, when 
the church would again examine them ; and, if 
received, they would be baptized." 


" More than twenty Karens came, to-day, from 
Maubee, and among them are those who asked 
for baptism last Sabbath. We had twelve of them 
at evening worship, and it would have been ex- 
ceedingly gratifying, could our friends in Ameri- 
ca have heard the examination they underwent 
after worship. When we consider that it is only 
a few months since they first heard of the gospel, 
and know they have not been taught by human 
aid, we are forced to believe they have been 
taught from above. Four of this number have 
come for the express purpose of being baptized 
on the morrow." 

" Lord's day. Thirty-two present at worship ; 
after which the four Karens were examined and 
received. Soon after this, they repaired to a 
tank, near the city, and were baptized. This 
afternoon, the celebration of the Lord's supper 
was observed ; twenty-two communicants present. 
After evening worship, had much interesting con- 
versation with the Karens. Many of them, beside 
those baptized, appear to believe with all their 
hearts. They have entirely thrown away their 
old superstition of Nat-worship, have broken short 
off with strong drink, (a Karen besetting sin,) and 
since they have heard the gospel, have kept the 
Sabbath day." 

** To-day the Karens left for their homes, re- 
joicing in the truth which has so recently reached 
their ears. This evening, Ko Thah-byu, and Kat 
Shay, one of the Karens just baptized, proposed 
that some one of the teachers should go into their 
village, and preach Christ to the people. This is 
just what is anxiously desired ; but I cannot leave 


" To-day the Karen preachers Taunah and 
Panlah arrived from Maulmain. We hope and 
pray they may be blessed in itinerating among 
their countrymen." 

" This morning, the Karens left us for Maubee ; 
but as they met Ko Thah-byu on his way home, 
and several Karens with him, they all returned 
together. Ko Thah-byu has a school of twelve 
or fifteen Karens in Maubee." 

In February, 1834, Mr. Bennett writes, ** This 
morning, Taunah and Panlah, with two school 
teachers, who have been preaching and teaching 
school among their countrymen, in Maubee and 
vicinity, left for their families near Maulmain. 
Just after the vessel had weighed anchor, and was 
dropping down the river, Ko Thah-byu, our Ka- 
ren assistant, with several people from Maubee, 
arrived, and added their crying, urgent request, 
that some one should come from Maulmain, and 
baptize the willing converts, who are like fruit 
fully ripe in the wilderness, which only wants to 
be gathered. It does sometimes happen that 
missionaries labor for years, and have no apparent 
success ; and it seems also to happen that, where 
none of them have sown the seeds, the ripened 
sheaves wait to be gathered to the garner. O, 
when will these poor souls be gladdened, by being 
permitted to follow their Savior in his blessed 
ordinances ? I have had much conversation with 
these people to-day ; and they are so artless, so 
honest, so simple-hearted, and withal so full of 
love to Christ, that no one, who knows the sweets 
of pardoning mercy, could hear their tales un- 
moved. They proposed to-day a plan, (which I 
fear could not be granted in the present state of 


affairs,) which is, to petition the Woon-gee for 
permission to have schools in their own language, 
and adopt whatever religion they pleased, and 
still enjoy the same freedom from molestation 
they have ever done, when without any religion. 
Should they obtain such permission, Boodhism 
would hardly lose any of its votaries; for these 
people, in general, detest the worship of idols." 

"The Karens mentioned yesterday came up 
this morning, and stated that they were commis- 
sioned by their brethren in Maubee to come and 
beg we would promise not to leave Rangoon, 
until some one came from Maulmain. They say 
they went to the wharf yesterday, in order to send 
word to Maulmain, to have a teacher come imme- 
diately ; but they were too late, as the vessel was 
moving down the river. They called to Taunah, 
but could not make him hear, he was so far dis- 
tant. They endeavored to get a boat to go on 
board, but failed. In view of all these things, I 
dare not leave until some one does come, and 
have promised the natives accordingly." 

After Mr. Bennett's departure from Rangoon, 
Mr. Webb, who next took charge of the station, 
noticing Ko Thah-byu and the fruits of his labors, 
under different dates, in September and October, 
says, — 

" Five Karens from Maubee arrived. They 
give interesting accounts of the state of feeling 
there. Our two most valuable Karen brethren 
from Maulmain have been laboring at Maubee 
for four or five months ; also three lads, young 
brethren from above Maulmain, formerly mem- 
bers of sister Hancock's school. They say that 
between one hundred and two hundred Karens 


attend worship every Sabbath at the three or four 
different places where these several brethren ex- 
hort, and pray, and read their solitary tract — the 
only thing, except a spelling-book, ever printed 
in their language. It is an interesting fact, and 
worthy to be often recorded, that this poor, neg- 
lected, and despised people, who, but two or three 
years since, had not a letter in their language, are 
now able, some of them, both to read and to tran- 
scribe their thoughts to others. When these Ka- 
rens arrived, I had received for them, from the 
Karens in Maulmain, fourteen letters written in 
the Karen language. 

** Seventeen Karens arrived from Maubee vil- 
lage exceedingly fatigued, having walked in one 
day a distance which usually occupies two, in 
order to be here before the Sabbath. Seven of 
them were women, four of whom had been exam- 
ined and accepted before brother Bennett left 
Rangoon, but not baptized. After worship in 
Burman, in which they took a part by singing a 
Karen hymn, they went to their lodgings on the 
veranda, and offered their evening devotions to 
God. These simple Karens, unshackled by the 
finespun systems of the Burmans, hear the gos- 
pel wijih cheering benefit. The seventeen now 
here think themselves converted to God by the 
preaching of Ko Thah-byu, a Karen who for- 
merly assisted our lamented brother Boardman, 
Moung Panlah, and the three Karen lads before 
mentioned. I asked, * Do the Karens mostly at- 
tend worship ? ' ' Yes, but there are some Phar- 
isees who do not.' ' And after you have done 
worship, you all go home and work, I suppose.' 
Nc • "^ remain together all day.' ' But what 


do you do all day 1 ' * We read the Scriptures, 
and preach, and pray five or six times.' One of 
their number was seized, by order of the head 
man of the village, and questioned concerning 
his religion. His reply was, ' I believe in Jesus 
Christ, and no more worship the Nats, nor the pa- 
godas, nor images, nor drink spirits. I worship 
the eternal God.' He was fined sixty-five rupees, 
and ordered not to receive the ' foreigners' ' re- 
ligion. * Well, now,' I said, * you are all very 
much afraid, I suppose.' * Some of the people are 
afraid, not the disciples ; but they come to meet- 
ing every Sabbath, one or two hundred of them, 
to hear Jesus Christ's law.' 'But perhaps the 
rulers will take your money, or whip you : why 
are you not afraid ? ' He replied simply, with an 
air of confidence, * Because the eternal God gov- 

" Yesterday, in connection with brother and 
sister Cutter, and Ko Shway-bay, and Ko Sanlone, 
two of our most experienced and valuable Burman 
assistants, we examined, for admission into the 
native church, nine Karens. Three of them were 
rejected ; two, principally because of their being 
so young ; we feared they had not safficiently 
counted the cost, though they appeared exceeding- 
ly interesting ; and one because we feared he 
had not sufficiently seen the evil of his own heart. 
The examination occupied the whole of the day, 
from nine in the morning till five in the afternoon, 
except one hour and a half's intermission. We 
were obliged, in most cases, to speak through a 
Karen interpreter. The other six were received, 
who, together with four that had been examined 
six months before, make ten whom I baptized this 


" It was a beautiful morning. The sun shed 
his brilliant beams on the gilded spires of the hun- 
dreds of surrounding pagodas, as if to invite the 
lifted eyes of their devotees to look above these 
spires to the God who made the sun, and gave him 
power to shine. We passed through a beautiful 
grove ofmango-trees, covered with immense flocks 
of a snow-white bird called the rice-bird, watching 
their nests. These trees surround a cluster of 
kyoungs, or monasteries of priests, through which 
we passed to the * royal tank,' a beautiful little 
lake encircled by trees. Here I baptized the ten, 
and, after offering our thanks and a prayer for the 
divine blessing in Burman, the Karens returned to 
their jungle, and we to our dwellings. This has 
been one of the brightest scenes of my life, a day 
which, for ten years, I have anticipated with in- 
tense interest. To lead these benighted heathen 
to the Lamb of God, to introduce them into the 
church of Christ, to raise them to civilization, to 
teach them the use and the worth of the social and 
domestic relations ordained by Heaven, and the 
bliss of loving God, — these brought us from our 
native land, our home, the fireside of our youth, 
from parents, friends, from what our hearts hold 
dearest of all on earth, from all the blessings which 
we came to bring. And 'tis a glad exchange. 
We would not forego our toil for a crown and 
sceptre, except a crown in heaven. 

" Sabbath. Ten Karens arrived on Saturday 
evening, six of whom ask for baptism. Four of 
the six we have judged it best should be set aside 
for the present ; the other two will be baptized 
next Sabbath. Ko Toung-yo, one of the four set 
aside, is an interesting old man. He says he 


believes in the eternal God, and always has; that 
his parents taught him, when a small child, that 
the world did not spring up of itself, as the Bur- 
mans say, but that it was created by a God, who 
is himself without beginning and without end, 
whom the Karens call Kah-tsah-yu-ah ; and that 
he must not worship images, nor pagodas, nor 
priests, nor books, but must worship Kah-tsah-yu- 
ah. But we feared he did not sufficiently realize 
the nature of sin against God, and therefore told 
him to wait a little. 

" Twelve Karens arrived last evening, six of 
whom have asked for baptism. These, together 
with the two received last Sabbath, I baptized this 
afternoon, in the royal tank. 

** Baptized four more Karens. We had no Ka- 
ren interpreter, but they all spoke Burraan, so that 
we succeeded much better than we had anticipated 
in their examination. These make twenty-two I 
have baptized within these three weeks, and many 
more are said to wish for baptism, of whom the 
native brethren speak favorably. The instruments 
in this work of grace have been three men, and 
two lads under fifteen years, all of whom can 
scarcely read Burman at all, and understand it less, 
and who, if they read Karen, have but a single 
tract of six pages, besides a spelling-book of thirty- 
three pages, in all their language. 

" How great is the grace of God, to render the 
truth so plain that the mere child may teach 
enough, if it be received with unwavering faith in 
God, to purify the heart and life, and prove the 
salvation of the soul ! " 

After the persecution commenced, Ko Thah- 
byu, being a prominent individual, left Maubee by 



the advice of his countrymen, and fled to Pegu. 
Mr. Webb writes, in September, 1835, ** Kyouk- 
kheh, an interesting Karen, from the Karen brook, 
visited me last evening, and staid through the 
night. The villages along the Karen brook are 
subject to Maubee city, and have shared in com- 
mon with the other Maubee Karens in the perse- 
cution. I learned from him several interesting 
particulars ; a circumstance peculiarly gratifying, 
as we have not before heard any thing from these 
villages since the first of their troubles." 

*'The Maubee governor has under his control 
one thousand houses. Before the persecution, 
Myat-thah, one of the Karen Christians, was ap- 
pointed by him ruler of one hundred houses. 
When the persecution began, Myat-thah and ev- 
ery other one who professed to believe in Christ, 
were seized and fined, in all, to the amount of 
four hundred rupees. This was a heavy fine, con- 
sidering that a Karen seldom has property to the 
amount of fifty dollars. Myat-thah was deposed 
from his office, and Kyouk-kheh put in his place. 
He says, that among the one hundred under him, 
fourteen are Christians, and have been fined for 
their religion. He has not yet been baptized, 
though he says he and his wife, and all his rela- 
tions, worship God, and all suffered in the general 
persecution. He says the Karens are afraid to 
visit me, but they daily worship Goo, and never 
worship the Nats or the pagodas. Indeed, the 
whole account he gives of them is of a pleasing 

" We had heard nothing from Ko Thah-byu for 
four months. Kyouk-kheh says he has heard of 
him at Pegu, preaching among about two thou- 


sand Karens, who live in that vicinity. When the 
persecution commenced at Maubee, his brethren 
advised him to avoid it; and so, like an apostle, 
when they persecute him in one city, he flees to 

In December, 1836, Mr. Howard, writing from 
the scene of Ko Thah-byu's labors in Maubee, 
and on the first visit of missionaries, says, "I left 
Rangoon, November 18th, with brethren Vinton 
and Abbott, for the purpose of visiting the Karens 
in Maubee and vicinity, among whom no mission- 
ary had ever been. As brother Vinton sends you 
a journal of the whole affair, it is unnecessary that 
I should detail particulars. I will only add my 
testimony, that the persons baptized (one hundred 
and sixty-seven) during the week which we spent 
among these children of the forest, sustained as 
*good an examination as any of an equal number I 
ever vv'itnessed in America. The helpless con- 
dition of man as a sinner, and the way of salva- 
tion through Christ alone, were truths apparently 
well understood by all ; and though they had every 
reason to expect that cruel persecution would be 
the result of their professed allegiance to the Sa- 
vior, yet theirs was the confidence and the joy of 
those who could say, ' I know in whom I have be- 
lieved.' In this section are probably a hundred or 
more believing Karens, who are still waiting for an 
opportunity to be baptized. The most who are now 
believers, profess to have been so for one, two, or 
three years, or from the time they first heard the 
gospel. The Lord has carried on this work, so far 
as human instrumentality is concerned, by native 
Karen assistants, and principally by Ko Thah-byu." 



Returns to Maulmain. — Second Visit to Rangoon. — Re- 
turns to Maulmain again. — Goes to Arrax,an. — Success. 
— Sickness and Death. 

It would have been interesting to read the ac- 
count of Ko Thah-byu's wanderings in Pegu, and 
his attempts to go over land to Maulmain ; but it is 
one of the withering curses of Ignorance, that all 
her subjects must serve in silence, without the 
power to record the sufferings that her minions, 
poverty and wretchedness, inflict. While the 
skilful hand of Education oft " gives to airy noth- 
ings a local habitation and a name," the stern 
realities of humble life are left, like the untrodden 
forest, in all their native grandeur, without a hand 
to sketch them. 

In the year 1837, he was in Maulmain, but 
went to Rangoon again with Mr. Abbott, in April, 
who thus writes : " He immediately went into the 
Karen jungle, and visited the Christian villages 
around and near Maubee, where he had formerly 
preached, and had been instrumental in Christian- 
izing a good many of his fellow-countrymen. He 
remained there, at this time, about six months, 
preaching altogether among the Christian villages. 
The old man's days for itinerating had passed 
away. He was afflicted with rheumatism and 
blindness, and was consequently unable to under- 
take any difficult journey. The Maubee villages 
being compact, and having good roads from one to 
the other, he was able to visit them by making a 


long stay at each. Another cause that deterred 
him from preaching among the unchristianized, 
was, the Burmese government had become alarmed 
at the fact of so many Karens having embraced a 
foreign religion. The Christians were oppressed, 
fined, imprisoned, and annoyed in every conceiva- 
ble manner. Every petty Burmese officer felt 
himself called upon to manifest his loyalty and his 
attachment to the institutions of his country by 
persecuting the Karen Christians. The land 
swarmed with ' informers,' who were the hired 
menials of said officers. Under such circum- 
stances, it is no wonder that old Ko Thah-byu felt 
himself justified in remaining quiet among the 
Christians. Even had he been able to travel and 
preach, and had he attempted it, he would soon 
have been apprehended. His health becoming 
more feeble, and war being expected between the 
English and the Burmese, he returned to Maul- 
main in November. When I left Maulmain, in 
February, 1840, I knew not certainly that I could 
obtain assistance from Burmah, and called Ko 
Thah-byu, and he accompanied me to Sandoway, 
with his family. Immediately on my arrival, I 
sent him to a small Karen village, a few miles 
from where I live, where he remained and preached 
a while, and then returned to me, and commenced 
teaching a class of boys. The small-pox breaking 
out in my school, and Ko Thah-byu's young chil- 
dren having never had it, he took his family and 
went again to the village near. At this place, 
where he spent all his time while in Arracan, four 
have been baptized. Several now stand candi- 
dates for the ordinance, and a good many are 
nominal Christians, all of whom first heard the 
gospel from Ko Thah-byu." 


Here, in the midst of his work, the summons 
came for him to cease from his labors. Here, in 
this village, which he had so recently entered, — 
a moral wilderness, — he was called away to the 
world of spirits, just when it was budding and 
blossoming into beauty, as so many and distant 
regions had done before, beneath his fostering 
hand. And he went, 

" Not, like the quarry slave, at night 
Scourged to his dungeon, but sustained and soothed 
By an unfaltering trust, 

Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch 
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams." 

*' His rheumatic complaint," continues Mr. Ab- 
bott, " had become distressing, so that he was 
many times unable to walk, or even to rise up. A 
few weeks after he left me, the disease settled 
upon his lungs, accompanied by violent inflamma- 
tion, and the old man seemed to be aware that he 
was near his grave. As it was the rainy sea- 
son, I could not go to him, but sent a boat and 
had him brought in, he having sent me word that 
he wanted to come and die near me. He came, 
but was unable to walk. I saw he had but a few 
days to live. He was perfectly willing to die ; had 
no fears ; * as it pleases God,' seemed to be the 
frame of his spirit. He suffered severely from his 
rheumatic complaint, notwithstanding the constant 
attention of the physician whom I called. He was 
very irritable at times, and his old temper would 
occasionally show itself He required a good deal 
of attention ; and many a time was I awakened in 
the night by his calling, * Teacher, please come 
and champoo me,' which I did, as he seemed to 
think no one could do it so well as myself On 


the whole, he was submissive under his pains, until 
they brought him to the grave, on the 9th of 
September, 1840. To the last, he had not an 
anxious thought as to his future destiny ; his usual 
reply to my questions on the subject was, * Teach- 
er, God will preserve me.' " 

What a glorious system of blessings is Chris- 
tianity ! There is not a passion that it cannot 
subdue ; not an evil propensity that it cannot de- 
stroy ; not a vicious habit that it cannot eradicate. 
For the sleepless horrors of a guilty conscience it 
has rest and peace, and for every sting a sure 
and abiding antidote. How amply it justifies the 
rich promises of its divine Founder ! And what 
marvel that the fearless apostle, amid the con- 
temptuous disciples of Plato and Zeno, lifted up a 
dauntless front, and gloried in " Christ, and him 
crucified" ! The dialogues of Plato live; but as 
to their influen.ce on the opinions and character's 
of men, their '' glory is departed : " the disciples 
of the Stoa* have passed away, without leaving a 
trace of their existence, save the ruins of the 
porches in which they taught. But the doctrines 
of the cross still live to humanize inhuman man ; 
to change a villain, from whose presence the vir- 
tuous instinctively shrink, into a " good man, full 
of the Holy Ghost and of faith," who scatters 
blessings wherever he goes, whose path through 
the world is traced by a track of glory, and whose 
" memory is the shrine 

Of pleasant thoughts, soft as the scent of flowers ; 
Cahn as, on windless eve, the sun's decline. 
Sweet as the song of birds among the bowers; 

* Stoa is properly a Greek word, signifying porch, or portico. It is 
liere used in reference to the portico, in which the philosopher Zeno 
delivered his instructions. From this word, the followers of Zeno 
were called Stoics. — E. 



Rich as a rainbow, with its hues of light; 
Pure as the moonlight of an autumn night." 

Where the blue mountains of Pegu so often glad- 
den the eyes of the weary mariner, after half cir 
cumnavigating a world of waters,* sleeps Ko 
Thah-byu. No mound marks his grave ; no *' sto- 
ried urn or animated bust" indicates his resting- 
place ; but the eternal mountains are his monument, 
and the Christian villages, that clothe their sides^ 
are his epitaph. 

" Remembrance oft shall haunt the shore, 

When woods in summer wreaths are dressed, 
And oft suspend the dashing oar, 

To bid thy fervent spirit rest. 
Long, long, thy monumental clay 

Shall melt the musing wanderer's eyes; 
' O vales and wild woods,' shall he say, 

' In yonder grave a giant lies.' " 

* The mountains of Pegu and Arracan are often the first land seer 
in India, by ships coming from Europe and America. 

The King's Boat. 




Karen Mission most encouraging. — Most successful. — 
The cheapest. — Native Preachers most useful. — An 
Establishment required to educate them. — Susceptibili' 
ty of the Karens to religious Impressions. — Testimony 
of various Missionaries. 

Mr. Malcom remarks, concerning the Karen 
mission, "We have been, perhaps, too much dis- 
posed to esteem the importance of a mission in 
proportion to the amount of population.* We 
ought rather to regard the indications of Provi- 
dence. In this respect, so far as I know, no other 
mission of modern times holds out such encour- 
agements." Here we have the testimony of a 
man who was deputed for the special purpose of 
visiting the different mission stations, ** to collect 
such information pertaining to missions as might 
enable the board to dispense the sacred charities 
intrusted to them with the greater skill." And 
after visiting the missions of nearly all denomina- 
tions in the East, he records it as his deliberate 
opinion, that on the very point which ought to 
give importance to missions with those that sup- 
port them, " no other mission of modern times 
holds out such encouragements." 

I do not flatter myself that I can add any thing 
to give greater weight in the public mind to this 
testimony ; but at a time when the hearts of those 
who conduct the missionary enterprise are begin- 

* The Karens are much more numerous than Mr. Malcom was 



ning to quail for the want of funds, and official 
documents moot the question of abandoning mis- 
sions, and calling home missionaries, it cannot 
be deemed either unimportant or invidious to of- 
fer a few considerations, to show that the Karen 
mission is the cheapest of American missions in 
the world.* 

The Karens do not require so much teaching, 
in the first instance, to bring them to a knowledge 
of the truth, as other unevangelized nations. 
Their traditions teach them the existence of an 
eternal God, who is omnipotent, omniscient, and 
omnipresent. Their traditions teach that this 
God created the heavens and the earth, and all 
which they contain ; that he created man holy, 
like himself, but that man fell from his state of 
holiness into a state of sin and misery by eating 
the forbidden fruit, through the temptation of Sa- 
tan ; but that God has promised to redeem and 
restore man to his favor, and that for this future 
salvation they are to wait in hope. These ac- 
knowledged articles of belief among them, with 
many other similar items of information, and a 
moral code, in the commands of the elders, that 
leaves little to be added, t save the missionary an 
immense amount of time and labor; for other na- 
tions need to learn them all from those that teach 
Christianity. The consequence is, that, with far 
less instruction, the members of the churches are 
much better acquainted with the doctrines and 
duties of Christianity, than the converts from other 
nations ; and hence, to bring them to a given point 
in their progress to knowledge, requires less for- 
eign aid, and therefore less money. 

* Foreign missions to the heathen are of course to be understood, 
■f See Appendix. 


Again, in no modern mission has an equal 
amount of success attended such a very small 
amount of funds as has been expended on the 
Karen mission. The baptism of Ko Thah-byu, 
in 1828, was the commencement of the mission ; 
for not till this period were any efforts made for 
the Karens, as a people. For several years, one 
ordained missionary only was devoted to their 
service ; and after a lapse of twelve years, at the 
time of Ko Thah-byu's death, there were five, and 
one assistant missionary, with their wives. At 
the end of these twelve years, one thousand two 
hundred and seventy Karens are officially reported 
as members of the churches in good standing. 
So far as my knowledge goes, no mission will 
admit of comparison with the Karen, but the 
one to the Sandwich Islands. This mission was 
commenced in 1829, with two ordained mission- 
aries, and five assistant missionaries, and their 
wives; and at the end of twelve years, in 1832, 
there were no less than twenty-two ordained mis- 
sionaries,* six assistant missionaries, their wives, 
and two single females connected with the mis- 
sion ; more than four times the number of Karen 
missionaries at the end of the corresponding pe- 
riod, while the whole number of persons admitted 
to the church from the commencement of the 
mission to the same date, was five hundred and 
seventy-seven ; less than half the number of Ka- 
rens, in good standing in the church, at the end 
of the same period. Thus it appears that, in the 

* It may be objected that eight of these had but recently joined ; 
but this was also true of one of the five belonging to the Karen 
mission, so that before these accessions the proportion was as one 
to three and a half. 


most successful of American missions, except the 
Karen, it cost more than four times more men 
and money than it did in the Karen, to produce 
less than half the results. 

The cheapness of this mission, as compared with 
other Eastern missions, is seen again in the oper- 
ations of the press. Mr. Trevelyan, as quoted by 
Malcom, says, " There are probably not five hun- 
dred persons in all India, not educated by Euro- 
peans, who could take up a translation in their 
own character, of any work in philosophy, morals, 
or religion, and read it ex tempore with under- 
standing." Still, to reach the small fraction that 
can be benefited by books, the different missions 
are compelled to circulate books by tens of thou- 
sands annually. The waste, though unavoidable, 
is immense. The writer of this Memoir once 
asked a missionary of some ten years' experience 
in India, what proportion of the books circulated 
were read. " O, I do not suppose a page in a 
thousand," was the reply. Another said, ^' One in 
ten." How different the circumstances in respect 
to the Karens ! All the readers have studied in 
schools taught either by the missionaries or their 
assistants, and their numbers and attainments are 
known ; so that there is no necessity to give a 
single book where there is not a moral certainty 
that it will be both read and understood. 

Again, it is a remarkable feature in the prog- 
ress of the Karen mission, that, from the com- 
mencement to the present time, the work has 
been carried on preeminently by the natives 
themselves. Where is there a mission that has 
produced a native preacher who has been so 
successful as the preceding pages show Ko 


Thah-byu to have been ? A dozen such men 
would, with the blessing of God, renovate the 
whole nation. Native preachers, it is well known, 
are supported at a tenth of what it costs to sup- 
port missionaries ; so that the cheapness of the 
mission appears again under this aspect. To 
make the native assistants most valuable, how- 
ever, they must be educated. 

Ko Thah-byu laid about him with the arm of 
a giant; but he was a blind Cyclops. No one 
valued him as the missionaries did ; yet no mis- 
sionary ever ventured to ordain him ; and that 
because, in common with all his countrymen, he 
wanted a well-regulated mind, such as a thorough 
training in a good mission school is adapted to 
impart. Thus it appears that the Karen mission, 
beyond all others, should be amply provided with 
means to instruct the native Christians ; and yet 
in this department it is remarkably deficient. 
There is not a single missionary devoted to the 
education of the people, while at each of the prin- 
cipal stations there ought to be two, with that as 
the prominent object of their labors. No matter 
what name is employed, whether schools, acade- 
mies, or seminaries ; it is institutions of learning 
that are required, not brick walls or Corinthian 
columns. There should be a liberal supply of 
missionaries to teach, so that if one be sick, as 
one often will be, another may be able to take 
his place, that the machinery may not run down, 
as it otherwise assuredly will ; and there should 
be a sufficient supply of money to support the 
pupils while studying, and to provide them with 
bamboo dwellings. Karen scholars are supported 
for eighteen dollars a year, including board, cloth- 


ing, and buildings, but exclusive of books and 
the salaries of the missionaries that superintend 

A Karen preacher, or school teacher, is sup- 
ported, when employed in the native villages, at 
from twenty-five to fifty dollars annually — much 
less than in most other missions.t Now, all we 
ask is, half-a-dozen more well-educated mission- 
aries, and funds enough to do all the good they 
can, on the economical scale given above. Is 
this an extravagant request? While there are 
twenty-four ordained missionaries sent to the one 
hundred thousand Sandwich Islanders, is it be- 
yond the bounds of propriety or practicability to 
sustain an establishment of half that number for 
the many hundred thousand Karens? Such an 
establishment as is desirable, might perhaps in- 
volve an annual expense of twenty thousand dol- 
lars, exclusive of the operations of the press ; and 
such an establishment, with God's blessing, would 
change the whole nation, and make them as truly a 
Christian people as are the English or the Ameri- 

And surely the six hundred thousand Baptist 
communicants of the United States, embracing a 
Baptist population of three or four millions, will 
not withhold a sum so paltry, to accomplish an 
object so glorious. 

* The whole expense, including every thing, may amount to from 
twenty-five to thirty dollars. 

f If other missions are more expensive, or less successful, it is not 
the fault of the missionaries ; and if the Karen mission is cheaper, or 
more successful, than others, no credit is to be here attributed to the 
Karen missionaries above their brethren. It is to be wholly attributed 
to peculiarly favorable providential circumstances; and these things 
are not mentioned for the sake of drawing invidious comparisons, but 
because they are some of "the indications of Providence " referred to 
above, and because they are facts that ought to be known. 


" Heaven doth with us as we with torches do, 
Not light them for themselves. If our possessions 
Did not go forth of us, 'twere all alike 
As if we had them not. Spirits are not finely touched, 
But to fine issues ; nor Nature ever lends 
The smallest scruple of her abundance. 
But, like a thrifty goddess, she determines 
Herself the glory of a creditor, — 
Both thanks and use." 

But the Karens, apart from all other consider- 
ations, have peculiar claims on Christians on 
account of their remarkable susceptibility to re- 
ligious impressions, and the spirit of piety evinced 
by the converts. Here we will not argue, but 
produce testimony — such testimony as would be 
more than sufficient to establish any point in law. 

The first witness we shall bring into court is 
Mr. Boardman, on his dying couch. Hear his 
testimony in the midst of the Karen converts 
coming forward for baptism. " If I live to see 
this one ingathering, I may well exclaim, with 
happy Simeon, ' Lord, now lettest thou thy ser- 
vant depart in peace according to thy word, for 
mine eyes have seen thy salvation.' How many 
ministers have wished they might die in their 
pulpits ! and would not dying in a spot like this 
be even more blessed than dying in a pulpit at 
home ? I feel that it would." 

The next that comes in is Mrs. Boardman, in 
her widowhood, testifying to the conduct of the 
converts after baptism. " They are Karens, liv- 
ing two or three days' journey distant, who, by 
their frequent visits to us, over almost impassable 
mountains, and through deserts, the haunt of the 
tiger, evince a love for the gospel seldom surpassed. 
What would the Christians in New Ensland think 


of travelling forty or fifty miles on foot to hear a 
sermon and beg a Christian book ? A good Chris- 
tian woman, who has been living with us sev- 
eral months, told me that, when she came, the 
water was so deep that she was obliged to wait 
till the men in the company could cut down trees 
and lay across the streams for her to get over on ; 
and sometimes she forded the streams herself, 
when the water reached her chin. She said she 
was more afraid of the alligators than any thing 
else. The reason of their coming at so bad a 
time was, we had appointed a church fast, and 
sent to the Karen Christians living near, to unite 
with us; but a rumor of it spread beyond the 
mountains, and they were so afraid that they 
should not observe it at the right time and in the 
right way, that a large company of the best dis- 
ciples came immediately to inquire about it. As 
far as we can learn, they manifest the same ten- 
derness of conscience and fear of doing wrong 
on every subject ; and I can say with truth, that 
the more we become acquainted with them, the 
more reason we find to love them as Christians, 
and to believe that the work is of God. Some of 
them have lived on our premises month after 
month, and their conduct has been most exem- 
plary ; and we have not heard of an instance of 
immorality among any of the church members 
during the past year." 

Miss Cummings, after living a year with the 
Karens in their own wilds, adds her testimony, 
and says, " A year happier than has been the 
past I have never seen." 

Our next witness is Mr. Vinton, who comes 
forward to testify of the joy with which the Chris- 


tians receive a new missionary. " We left Maul- 
main the second of this month, and, on our arrival 
here, were received by the native church, and 
indeed by the whole village, with expressions of 
joy, such as are seldom witnessed on the arrival 
of a long-absent, yet endeared, friend. Even the 
children were not content without letting us 
know the interest they felt, by joining their pa- 
rents in carrying our things up the steep ascent 
to the house. At evening, the*whole village came 
together for worship. It was a season of deep 
interest to me. I told them, as well as my scanty 
knowledge of the language would allow, the object 
of my coming among them. The greater part 
seemed drunk up with interest at the thought that 
one was to be devoted to the work of making 
known to them the messages of mercy through a 
Savior. The next day they brought us such fruits 
and vegetables as the land afforded; and, indeed, 
they have continued to make their offerings in 
such abundance, that hitherto we have been more 
than supplied. These, though of trifling value, 
are like the widow's two mites, which, in the 
sight of God, were of more value than all the 
offerings of the rich, and seem to presage the 
pouring out of that divine blessing annexed to 
bringing in all the tithes into the storehouse. I 
have baptized two, and shall probably baptize 
again next Sabbath. Inquirers are multiplying, 
and I trust the time is not far distant, when this 
whole land shall be Emanuel's land, a mountain 
of holiness, over which the blessed Jesus shall 
reign without a rival." 

Next hear Mr. Wade's evidence concerning the 
susceptibility of the people to the truth. ''As 


often as I think of the little church at Yeh, and 
of the hopeful inquirers there, I feel that we have 
reason to exclaim, ' What hath God wrought ! ' 
What, but divine power, could have induced so 
many to believe the doctrine of foreign teachers, 
when their views of their own worldly interest 
inclined them to take a directly opposite course ? 
What God has done there for part of the popula- 
tion, he is able to do for the whole ; and he is able 
to do the same in efVery heathen settlement where 
the gospel is preached. The means of grace 
there have been small on the one hand ; and, on 
the other, the people were at first, with one con- 
sent, violently opposed to every effort to introduce 
the gospel among them. It was astonishing how 
they had acquired so much knowledge of the way 
of salvation, with so little means." 

Mrs. Wade adds her testimony to the Christian 
character of the members of the churches. " We 
had a pleasant season at worship in the morning, 
with thirteen Karen Christians : two came with 
us, one was from a distant village, and ten belong 
to this place. Several others, besides children, 
were present. At evening, I felt much better, and 
conversed for some time with the Christians, who 
appear steadfast in the faith, and some of them 
* growing in grace.' 

" They are far separated from any other Chris- 
tians, and can but seldom see the missionaries ; 
but they seem to live a life of prayer and simple 
faith in God. Every Sunday they assemble, and 
read, and pray, and sing : and truly the blessing of 
the Lord rests upon them. O, it is delightful to 
sit and hear them tell how peaceful and happy 
they are, since * God gave them new hearts.' — On 


our arrival at Matah, this morning, we found the 
Christians had repaired the old house, and spread 
their mats on the floor, and made all things look 
quite comfortable. We spent the remainder of the 
day in conversing with them, attending to the sick, 
&c., until evening, when they beat a small gong, 
which called them all to the zayat for worship. It 
was truly a delightful sight to see above one hundred 
and fifty, all seated in perfect order, and waiting 
to hear the word of the Lord from their teacher. 
Their singing was really melodious, and their at- 
tention and behavior, every way, might be a useful 
example to many congregations in our own dear 
native country. I have now been a month among 
these dear Christians, and am compelled to exclaim, 
* What hath God wrought! ' I really did not ex- 
pect to find such lovely examples of simple, hum- 
ble piety, as I see exhibited in the lives of many 
of them, while their means of instruction have 
necessarily been so limited. I will not retire with- 
out recording the goodness of God ; for this has 
been one of the happiest days of my whole life. 
The morning was spent in examining candidates ; 
the afternoon in a kind of church conference, 
until the cool of tl^ day, when we had a short 
service. We then repaired to the beautiful banks 
of the Tenasserim, where twenty-five lovely con- 
verts were buried with Christ in its crystal waters. 
The assembly was large, the singing animated 
and melodious, and the scenery around most ro- 
mantic and delightful. Surely it was one of those 
scenes in which angels love to mingle. Dear 
brother Boardman ' went forth weeping, bearing 
the precious seed ; ' brother Mason has toiled hard 
here alone in ' watering ; ' and we are permitted 


to gather in the * increase,' which God has given. 
Well, we here on earth will join our brother in 
glory, in giving all the praise to Him who hath 
redeemed them and us by his own precious blood." 

Miss Macomber follows to testify to the reality 
of the Spirit's influence in the progress of the 
work. *'I have now the happiness to inform you 
that the excitement, which I attributed wholly to 
novelty, proved to be a gracious influence of the 
Holy Spirit. A number of these poor dark hea- 
then, who were then bound in Satan's double 
chain, (idolatry and drunkenness,) have been lib- 
erated and brought into the glorious liberty of the 
gospel of Christ, and are now rejoicing in the 
hope of the glory of God. 

" The progress of the work has been deeply 
interesting to all who have been acquainted with 
it, and particularly so to myself Never were the 
power and mercy of God more manifestly dis- 
played, and never did his saving grace shine 
through a more feeble instrumentality. But God 
can work according to his will ; and blessed be 
his name, the heathen shall be given to his Son. 

" Our first baptism was on the 12th of January. 
Chung-pau, a man rather a^^anced in years, but 
of a sound, good mind, and who has thus far mani- 
fested a most devoted spirit, had, from the first, 
listened with uncommon interest; and 1 think I 
shall never forget the sensations it gave me, when 
he would come and sit down by me, and, with a 
countenance which bespoke a soul awakened to 
the interest of eternal realities, would ask, ' What 
is it to believe ? What can I do to believe ? I 
want to escape hell, and obtain heaven. I wish to 
trust in Jesus Christ. What shall I do ? ' O, what 



would I have given, in that moment, for an easy 
use of the language ! But I said what I could, and 
the Spirit taught him as man could not." 

Mr. Kincaid comes forward to testify to the 
eagerness with which the Christians flocked around 
him to hear the word of God, and their desire to 
understand it. " Set off in a Burman canoe to 
visit some Karens, twenty-five miles distant. I 
found the village delightfully situated on the mar- 
gin of a mountain stream; but the most pleasant 
part was,' to witness the eagerness with which 
they flocked around me to listen to the word of 
God. My feeble, emaciated appearance drew 
from them the tenderest sympathy. Though un- 
able to sit up more than an hour and a half at a 
time, I still had strength to preach to them every 
morning and evening. My congregation averages 
about sixty. They sing the songs of Zion in the 
sweetest manner. There was a melody and sweet- 
ness in their singing, which perhaps is rarely ever 

'* The Karen Christians are comincr in almost 
daily ; often seven or eight together ; and they 
would come by twenties, if we had not sent them 
word that it would be imprudent, and exposing 
themselves unnecessarily to fines and imprison- 
ment; perhaps to long servitude, and possibly to 
death. Some, who had been bound with cords, 
and cruelly beaten till nearly senseless, for preach- 
ing Christ and the resurrection, came to see us. 
Often, when we returned from a walk in the even- 
ing, through some part of the town or suburbs, we 
found four or five, or seven or eight, in our room, 
nearly worn out with their long march through 
the heat of the sun. Still they would sit up till 


after midnight, asking questions about Christian 
doctrines and duties, and having difficult passages 
of Scripture explained ; and even at that time of 
night, it was not easy to get away to sleep, they 
were so eager to have every thing obscure made 
plain. Some of these are assistants, who have 
from twenty to sixty families each under their 
care. They are pastors, as well as preachers; 
each one, in his own parish, visiting from house to 
house, reading the Scriptures, and praying with 
the sick, conducting public worship on- the Sab- 
bath, preaching to the unconverted, and perform- 
ing the rite of marriage, according to Christian 
usage. They also preside in the respective 
churches under their care. They are not or- 
dained, and therefore do not administer baptism 
and the Lord's supper. They are indeed God's 
* anointed ones,' and we have no doubt but in 
time they will become efficient pastors and evan- 
gelists. It would be imprudent now to intrust 
them with power to baptize and admit persons to 
church membership. They must have more in- 
struction in the ' mysteries of the kingdom,' more 
experience, and more knowledge of character, or 
there would be danger of their filling up the church 
with mere nominal Christians. Two of the young 
men, who were in irons and stocks last year, are 
now sitting near me, reading the New Testament. 
Both of them are fine, active young men. 

*' The assistant who has been laboring in the 
vicinity of Bassein, where the celebrated young 
chief resides, has just arrived in Rangoon. The 
work of divine grace in that region is wonderful. 
The house of the young chief is thronged much 
of the time by Karens, who come to hear the gos- 


pel, and learn to read. In that district, between 
two and three hundred are waiting for baptism. 
Such is the power of the gospel among that people. 
We have examined six or seven native assistants, 
and given them all the instruction which so short 
a time could allow. Our prayers go with them 
in their blessed labors. They have the highest 
wisdom; that is, wisdom in winning souls to 
Christ. Their purpose and feelings are exclusive. 
One settled design appears to engross all their 
thoughts and wishes. Persecution does not dis- 
hearten them ; fines and imprisonment do not ter- 
rify them. The spread of the gospel, and the 
salvation of their countrymen, is the all-engrossing 
subject by day and by night." 

Mr, Hancock testifies to the appearance of the 
people while suffering from the " pestilence that 
walks at noonday." " My visit to Matah was an 
extremely interesting one, though I have since paid 
dearly for it. Brother Mason and myself left Ta- 
voy on Wednesday morning, and reached the 
* City of Love ' * Thursday evening, about five 
o'clock. We were heartily welcomed by brother 
and sister Wade. In the evening, by request, I 
addressed an assembly of between two and three 
hundred Karens, from these words : ' Let not your 
hearts be troubled.' Many of them had lately lost 
friends by the cholera, and their hearts were still 
bleeding from the wounds which had been made ; 
many, also, had contemplated a removal from the 
place, from fear of contagion. I directed their 
minds to the words above quoted, as a * balm for 
all their wounds, and a cordial for their fears.' It 

* Such is the meaning of the whole word Matah-myu, of which 
Matah is an abbreviation. — E. 


was the largest congregation of natives I had seen 
in the country, and a more attentive one I have 
never seen. When the meeting vi^as over, all were 
anxious to testify their welcome to the stranger, 
by a shake of the hand ; and it was with much 
difficulty I made my way through the crowd." 

Mr. Abbott's evidence relates to the manner 
with which the Christians bear persecution; to 
" whole villages having turned to God ; " and to the 
efficiency of the native preachers. "During a few 
weeks after the ' young chief and his associates 
were released, but few Karens ventured to call on 
me at Rangoon ; yet more than I wished. About 
the 1st of October, three men came from Bassein, 
to ask that question which was to me the precur- 
sor of evil — ' Teacher, what shall we do? for,' said 
they, * four of our brethren are in the stocks.' 
They informed me that an assistant whom I had 
sent to that region, and three young men who had 
joined him there, were out on a preaching excur- 
sion, and stopped at a large Karen village one 
evening, which was near to the village of a Bur- 
man officer, and, as their custom was, called to- 
gether the people, and preached to them the 
kingdom of God. They were warned that their 
course would possibly awaken the wrath of the 
officers. But, as it seems, they deemed it advisa- 
ble to obey God rather than man, and continued 
their meeting till a late hour at night. The next 
morning, before they had time to get away, these 
four young Karens were apprehended, and beaten, 
with several who had listened to their story the 
preceding evening. They were then (the four) 
cast into the stocks, and reserved for threatened 
torture. In ten days, I heard again, the four had 


been liberated before the men who came to me 
reached home. But the officers had extorted a 
hundred and fifty rupees from the Christians, 
which sum had been immediately made out by 
voluntary contribution, some giving one anna, and 
some two, and some one rupee ; yet not a Karen 
in this whole region has been baptized, except the 
* young chief.' 

" On the 20th of November, the assistant men- 
tioned above came to me at Rangoon, pale and 
emaciated from disease. I asked him how he felt 
while they were beating him 1 * Prayed for them.' 
But were you not a little angry ? ' No ; I told 
them they might beat me to death, if they wished, 
but they would not make me angry, and I should 
live again at the resurrection. When they heard 
this, they laughed, and after beating me a little, 
stopped.' Since that time, he has been preaching 
in villages more remote from the Burmans, and 
has not been molested. The account he brings 
relative to the work of the Lord in those regions, 
surpasses every thing I have known in modern 
days among heathen nations ; and if it be of God, 
it will stand. 

**At Maubee and the surrounding villages, there 
are very many who have learned to read within the 
last year, and many who have embraced the gos- 
pel, and are waiting for baptism. The church 
stands firm amid storms and threatenings, oppres- 
sions and persecutions. 

" At Bassein, the * young chief ' continues to 
be as actively engaged in doing good as ever. 
His house is a great Bethel, a temple of God, 
whither the people from the neighboring and dis- 
tant villages resort, to learn to read, and how to 


worship God. He is the only baptized individual 
in that region, and consequently is the only one 
who can be reckoned a member of the church. 
How many there are there, who would be consid- 
ered proper subjects of baptism, it is impossible 
to say. The assistants think there are from six 
hundred to one thousand who are decidedly 
Christians. Although but one has been baptized 
there, still the line of demarkation between those 
who serve God and those who serve him not, is 
distinctly drawn ; and generally there exists on 
the part of those who reject the gospel a most 
bitter hatred towards the Christians. In fact, the 
Karen converts fear their own countrymen, who 
are enemies to the gospel, more than Burman 
officers. Sometimes, even in families, there exists 
the most deadly opposition ; and not only are ' a 
man's foes they of his own household,' but they 
are often his bitterest foes. Notwithstanding, I 
know of several villages where the people are all 
decidedly Christian ; and althojugh it has been 
denied by some that there are ' whole villages who 
have turned to God,' yet if they will take a trip 
with me into the Karen jungles, I will show them 
several such. It is easy to account for the rapid 
spread of the gospel in these regions. I attribute 
it, under the blessing of God, to the efficiency and 
apostolic zeal of the Karen native preachers." 

Mr. Malcom, returning from inspecting the mis- 
sion, comes in to testify to the temperance of the 
Christians, and to their gratitude to the American 
churches ; closing with a Karen baptismal scene. 
" The change in regard to temperance is not less 
remarkable. Unlike the Burmans, whose religion 
utterly forbids strong drink, and who scarcely 


ever use it, the Karens use it universally, and 
generally to excess; every family make arrack 
for themselves, and from oldest to youngest par- 
take. Drunkenness, with all its train of horrors, 
is rife among them, of course. But no sooner do 
any become serious inquirers, and consort with 
the disciples for further instruction, than they 
totally abandon the accursed thing. The chil- 
dren of the very men who were sots, are growing 
up without having tasted or seen it. The conse- 
quences to domestic peace and general welfare 
may be supposed. 

** When endeavors to do good fail, it is a sweet 
reward to see those we meant to benefit, grateful 
for our interference. And when good is really 
done, our pleasure is often neutralized by the pain 
of being ungratefully requited. Those who sup- 
port our enterprise ought to know that this peo- 
ple testify aloud their continual gratitude towards 
the Christians of this country for the knowledge 
of Christianity. They often compare their former 
degradation and misery with their present com- 
forts and hopes. We had a church meeting, at 
which, among other business, three candidates for 
baptism were received. Some others were de- 
ferred for the present. The rude-looking assem- 
bly (lately so rude indeed, and so ignorant of 
eternal things) transacted their business with much 
order and great correctness of judgment. Now, 
and several times before, I addressed them official- 
ly, through Mr. Judson, examining into their de- 
grees of religious knowledge, and leaving them 
various injunctions relating to both temporal and 
eternal things. In the afternoon, we met again, 
and, after religious exercises, walked in proces- 


sion to the water-side, where, after singing and 
prayer, I baptized the candidates in the name of 
the Holy Three. The river was perfectly serene, 
and the shore a clean sand. One of those lofty 
mountains which I have described, rose in iso- 
lated majesty on the opposite shore, intercepting 
the rays of the setting sun. The water was per- 
fectly clear, the air cool and fragrant, the candi- 
dates calm and happy. All was good. May that 
lonely mountain often, often echo with the baptis- 
mal hymn, and the voice of prayer ! How blessed 
and golden are these days to Burm^h ! Men love 
to mark the glorious sunrise. Painters copy it ; 
poets sing it ; all derive pleasure and elevation 
as they gaze while it blazes up the heavens, 
turning to gorgeous purple every dull cloud, gild- 
ing the mountain tops, and chasing the mists 
from the valley. God seems present, and creati<in 
rejoices. But how much more glorious is the 
dawn I am permitted here to witness ! All the 
romance which swells the bosom of the sentiment- 
alist; gazing on early day, is coldness and trifling, 
compared to the emotions a Christian may cherish, 
when he sees the gospel beginning to enlighten a 
great nation. Surely we may hope such is the 
case here, and that the little light, which has 
invaded this empire of darkness, will issue in per- 
fect day. I see a dim twilight ; others will rejoice 
in the rising sun, and others in the meridian day. 
O Lord, come with thy great power. Inspire the 
churches to do all their duty, and prepare all peo- 
ple for thy truth." 

Finally, to express the feelings of every Karen 
missionary, Mr. Judson comes forward, exclaim- 
ing, with the voice of one crying in the wilder- 



ness, " The dying words of an aged man of God, 
when he waved his withered, death-struck arm, 
and exclaimed, ' 2%e best of all is, God is with us^ 
I feel in my very soul. Yes, the great Invisible 
is in these Karen wilds. That mighty Being, who 
heaped up these craggy rocks, and reared these 
stupendous mountains, and poured these streams 
in all directions, and scattered immortal beings 
throughout these deserts. He is present, and ac- 
companies the sound of the gospel, with convert- 
ing, sanctifying power. The best of all is, God 
IS WITH us." 

The Grave of Mrs. Ann H. Judson. 



The Karens are a people so little known, that a few 
historical and geographical notices concerning them may 
not be unacceptable to the reader of the preceding Me- 
moir. The writer has also furnished the public with 
various Karen traditions ; but as they lie scattered in 
different periodicals, he has presumed that a revised ac- 
count of them, with additions, would be deemed desirable 
and appropriate, at the close of the Memoir of " the first 
Karen convert." 


The Karens have well-defined traditions of being com- 
paratively recent emigrants in Tavoy. They say, '< The 
elders said, we came down from the upper country. 
Some fled from punishment, and some came because 
they heard that it was a good country. At first we came 
down and settled on the Attaran; next, we came to Ya; 
and finally to Tavoy." This tradition receives confir- 
mation from the fact, that, while the dialects spoken at 
Tavoy and Maulmain differ in many respects, the Ka- 
rens on Balu Island, at the mouth of the Salwen, are 
said to speak " precisely the same dialect as is spoken 
at Tavoy;" which maybe easily accounted for on the 
supposition that the Karens on that island are descend- 
ants of the original wanderers from the upper country, 
who did not go farther south. 

The testimony of tradition is equally definite as to 
their recent introduction into Siam. " The elders said, 
the Karens have not been long in Siam. Many went 
thither when Martaban was destroyed, because they 
heard it was a good country ; some, whom the Siamese 
had kidnapped, were there before, and some went when 


the Siamese besieged Tavoy." This tradition is made 
probable by the well-established fact, that there are no 
Karens in Siam except on the western side of the Mei- 
nam. It is well known that there are none in Arracan, 
except a few that have straggled over the mountains 
into the southern province of Sandoway. 

Thus we are enabled to trace them satisfactorily to 
the valleys of the Irrawaddy and the Sal wen ; and we 
have equally definite traditions that their original home 
was not there ; but whence they came to inhabit these 
regions is not clear. Tradition says, " The Karens, 
anciently, came from beyond the waters of running sand, 
and, having marked out Zimmay for themselves, re- 
turned. Afterwards, when they came to dwell there, 
they found the Shans occupying the country. Then the 
Karens cursed them, saying, Dwell ye in the dividing 
of countries. May Ava make war on you on one side, 
and Siam on the other." There is a hint on this subject 
in Dr. Richardson's account of the red Karens, who, he 
says, represent themselves as having come from the 
north-west. Malte-Brun, too, arguing from the accounts 
of Marco Polo, confirms this tradition. He concludes, 
" Thus the country of Caride is the south-east point of 
Thibet, and perhaps the country of the nation of the 
Cariaines, which is spread over Ava." 

This view is strongly confirmed by Mr. Kincaid, who, 
writing wholly from original sources of information, says, 
" The result of all my inquiries is, that Kakhyen is only 
another name for the Karens. All these mountain tribes, 
through the whole extent of the Shyan country, and still 
north into Thibet, are called Kakhyens, except in the 
Hukong valley, between Mogaung and Assam, where 
they are called Thing-bau-kakhyen. The whole moun- 
tain country between Mogaung and Cathay is inhabited 
by the same people. Around the Martaban Gulf, and 
thence inland as far as the Burman population has ever 
extended, the mountain tribes are called Karens. Be- 
tween Rangoon and Toung-oo, and between Toung-oo 
land Ava, they are very numerous, as also between 
Toung-oo and Monay, a Shan city, about two hundred 
and fifty miles east of Ava. There are some tribes scat- 
tered along between Burmah and the Shyan states, called 
Karen-nee, red Karens; and these extend as far east as 


Zimmay. These are less civilized than those who live 
in the vicinity of Burman towns. Some have errone- 
ously considered them as belonging to the Shyan family. 
Their language and every thing else pertaining to them 
is Karen. In addition to this, the south-east part of 
Thibet is inhabited by Kakhyens ; at least I have reason 
to believe so, as the Shans, who live in the most north- 
ern part of Burniah, and adjoining Thibet, call the coun- 
try ' the Kakhyen country.' It will be seen, then, that 
these mountain tribes are scattered over a vast extent of 
country, and their population I make to be about five 

Dr. Heifer testifies strongly to the " Caucasian coun- 
tenance " of the Karens; and Captain Hanney, speaking 
of the Kakhyens, says, they " are remarkable among all 
the nations around them, in being wholly destitute of the 
Tartar countenance, having long faces and straight 
noses." Testimony so independent, and so free from 
all theory on the subject, goes far to prove the identity 
of these tribes. 

Admitting that the Karens are emigrants from the 
borders of China and Thibet, it could hardly be expected 
that at Tavoy much evidence of the fact would be found. 
Still there are some things in their customs and tradi- 
tions which point strongly that way. The nation is di- 
vided into two parties, which may not be improperly 
denominated sects ; one of these is in the constant prac- 
tice of making offerings to the departed spirits of their 
ancestors — a custom which could not well be derived 
from any but the Chinese. The other sect denounces 
this practice, and is careful to avoid it, as they say their 
ancestors were ; which further goes lo show that the 
practice has been ingrafted on their ancient customs. 
Again, Teen, the Chinese name for God, exists in Karen 
poetry as the name of a false god, which they regard as 
having been worshipped by a people with whom they 
were formerly in contact; though they have not the 
most distant idea that that people were the Chinese. 

One little coincidence would indicate a connection 
also with Thibet. The names of the months in Karen 
are usually significant, each designating some circum- 
stance or labor indicative of the season ; but the two 
months corresponding to June and July are exceptions, 


being designated numerically. June is called the sev- 
enth month, and July the eighth month ; by which 
enumeration, the first month would be December. Now, 
no people, of whom I have read, commence their year 
in December but the Thibetans; and they also denom- 
inate their months numerically. In the publications of 
the Asiatic Society, it is stated, " The civil year com- 
mences differently in different parts of Thibet, varying 
from December to February. At Asadakh, it begins in 
December. The months have several names expressive 
of the seasons, &c. ; but they are usually denominated 
numerically, first, second, &c." 

Finally, evidence to the connection of the Karens 
with the north-western tribes is furnished by their 
language. Of a vocabulary of seventy words, puD- 
lished in the periodicals to illustrate the language of 
those tribes, about fifty, with slight modifications, are 
found in one or other of the Karen dialects. 



"God. is unchangeable, eternal; 
He was in the beginning of the world. 
God is endless and eternal ; 
He existed in the beginning of the world. 
God is truly unchangeable and eternal; 
He existed in ancient time, at the beginning of the world. 
The life of God is endless ; 

A succession of worlds does not measure his existence; 
Two successions of worlds do not measure his existence. 
God is perfect in every meritorious attribute. 
And dies not in succession on succession of worlds." 

" The Omnipotent is God ; 
Him have we not believed. 
This Omnipotent one 
We have not believed." 

" God created men anciently ; 
He has a perfect knowledge of all things. 
God created men at the beginning ; 
He knows all things to the present time." 

" O my children and grandchildren ! the earth is the treading- 
place of the feet of God, and heaven is the place where he sits. 
He sees all things, and we are manifest to him." 


" God is not far off. He is among us. He has only separated 
himself from us by a single thickness of white. Children, it is 
because men are not upright, that they do not see God." 

" Father God said, My son and daughter, Father will make and 
give you a garden. In the garden are seven different kinds of trees, 
bearing seven different kinds of fruit. Among the seven, one tree is 
not good to eat. Eat not of its fruit. If you eat you will become old, 
you will die. Eat not. All I have created I give to you. Eat and 
drink with care. Once in seven days I will visit you. All I have 
commanded you, observe and do. Forget me not. Pray to me every 
morning and night." 

The Temptation and Fall " Afterwards Satan came and said, 

• Why are you here .'' ' ' Our Father God put us here,' they replied. 
' What do you eat here ? ' Satan inquired. ' Our Father God created 
food and drink for us ; food without end.' Satan said, ' Show me 
your food.' And they went, with Satan following behind them, to 
show him. On arriving at the garden, they showed him the fruits, 
saying, 'This is sweet, this is sour, this is bitter, this is astringent, 
this is savory, this is fiery ; but this tree, we know not whether it ia 
sour or sweet. Our Father God said to us, Eat not the fruit of this 
tree ; if you eat, you will die. W^e eat not, and do not know whether 
it be sour or sweet.' ' Not so, O my children,' Satan replied ; 'the 
heart of your Father God is not with you ; this is the richest and 
sweetest. It is richer than the others, sweeter than the others ; and 
not merely richer and sweeter, but, if you eat it, you will possess mi- 
raculous powers ; you will be able to ascend into heaven, and descend 
into the earth ; you will be able to fly. The heart of your God is not 
with you. This desirable thing he has not given you. My heart is 
not like the heart of your God. He is not honest. He is envious. I 
am honest. I am not envious. I love you, and tell you the whole. 
Your Father God does not love you ; he did not tell you the whole. 
If you do not believe me, do not eat it. Let each one eat,, carefully, 
a single fruit ; then you will know.' The man replied, ' Our Father 
God said to us, Eat not the fruit of this tree, and we eat it not.' Thus 
saying, he rose up and went away. But the woman listened to Satan, 
and thinking what he said rather proper, remained. Satan deceived 
her completely; and she said to him, 'If we eat, shall we, indeed, 
be able to fly .'" ' My son and daughter,' Satan replied, ' I persuade 
you because I love you.' The woman took one of the fruit and ate. 
And Satan, laughing, said, ' My daughter, you listen to me well ; now 
go, give the fruit to your husband, and say to him, I have eaten the 
fruit ; it is exceedingly rich. If he does not eat, deceive him, that he 
mny eat.' The woman, doing as Satan told her, went and coaxed 
her husband, till she won him over to her own mind, and he took the 
fruit from the hand of his wife and ate. When he had eaten, she 
went to Satan, and said, ' My husband has eaten the fruit.' On 
hearing that, he laughed exceedingly, and said, ' Now you have list- 
ened to me, very good, my son and daughter.' " 

Tlie Curse. — " The day after they had eaten, early in the morning, 
God visited them ; but they did not (as they bad been wont to do) 
follow him, singing praises. He approached them, and said, ' Why 
have you eaten the fruit of the tree that I commanded you not to 
eat ! ' They did not dare to reply, and (Jod cursed them. ' Now 
you have not observed what I commanded you,' he said ; 'the fruit 
that is not good to eat, I told you not to eat ; but you have not list 


ened, and have eaten. Therefore you shall become old, you shall 
be sick, and you shall die.' " 

Origin of Sacrifices to Demons. — " After this, one of their children 
became very sick, and the man and his wife said to each other, We 
did not observe God's command, 'Of the fruit of the tree eat not,' 
but we ate. Now, what shall we do? Grod has cast us off; we can- 
not tell what to do. We must go and see Satan, and ask him. They 
arose and went to him. ' O Satan,' they said, ' God commanded us, 
Eat not of that fruit. Thou saidst. Eat ; and we hearkened to thy 
words, and ate. Now, our child is sick ; what wilt thou say ? What 
wilt thou devise?' Satan replied, 'To your Father God you did 
not hearken ; you hearkened unto me ; now that you have heark- 
ened unto me, hearken unto me to the end.' " 


Love to Ood — "O children and grandchildren! love God, and 
never so much as mention his name ; for, by speaking his name, he 
goes farther and farther from us." 

Prayer — " O children and grandchildren ! pray to God constantly, 
by day and by night." 

Repentance and Prayer. — " O children and grandchildren ! if we 
repent of our sins, and cease to do evil, restraining our passions, 
and pray to God, he will have mercy upon us again. If God does 
not have mercy on us, there is no other one that can. He who 
saves us is the only one God.". 

Idolatry. — "O children and grandchildren! do not worship idols 
or priests. If you worship them, you obtain no advantage thereby, 
while you increase your sins exceedingly." 

Honor to Parents. — "O children and grandchildren! respect and 
reverence your mother and father; for, when you were small, they 
did not suffer so much as a mosquito to bite you. To sin against 
your parents is a heinous crime." 

" If your father or mother instructs or beats you, fear. If you fear 
not, the tigers will not fear you." 

Love to Others. — " O children and grandchildren ! do not be fond 
of quarrelling and disputings, but love each other. God in heaven 
looks down upon us ; and if we do not love each other, it is the 
same as if we did not love God. O children and grandchildren ! 
quarrel not, but love each other." 

Rewards and Punishments. — "Good persons, the good, 
Shall go to heaven : 
Righteous persons, the righteous. 
Shall arrive at heaven. 
Unrighteous persons, the unrighteous, 
At death go to hell : , 


Wicked persons, the bad, 
Shall fall into the fire of hell : 
Wicked persons, the wicked. 
Shall fall into the deepest hell." 


^People beloved of God. — " O children and grandchildren ! formerly 
God loved the Karen nation above all others ; but they transgressed 
his commands, and, in consequence of their transgressions, we suffer 
as at present. Because God cursed us, we are in our present afflicted 
state, and have no books. But God will again have mercy on us, and 
again he will love us above others. God will yet save us again ; it is on 
account of our listening to the language of Satan, that we thus suffer." 

The Word of God. — In one of their old war songs, 
the Sgau Karens boast in possessing the word of God. 

"Though thou sayest the Pghos are insignificant, 
Thou must pay a fine for killing them. — 
The Sgaus have the word of Jehovah : 
They will pay no fine for the life of a Pgho." 

Departure of God. — Many of the Karen traditions, both 
in prose and verse, allude to the departure of God ; but to 
what event reference is had, it is difficult to say, for all 
the accounts are evidently fabulous in their details. For 
instance, " The elders said, that God, returning anciently, 
said to the Karens, ' Karen, guide me.' The Karens re- 
plied, ' The weeds are very thick ; we cannot guide thee.' 
And God said, ' May you pull up weeds generation after 
generation.' Coming to the Burmans, he said, ' Burman, 
guide me.' The Burmans replied, ' We are hewing out 
a canoe ; we cannot guide thee.' And God said, ' May 
you hew out canoes generation after generation.' So 
said one after another, in succession, till he came to the 
white foreigners, the youngest brother, to whom he said, 
'White foreigner, guide me,' The white foreigner re- 
plied, ' I have no ship, no boat ; I cannot guide thee ; but 
I wish to guide thee.' Then God made him take off his 
hat and put it in the sea, and it became a large, golden 
ship ; in which they conducted God away to the west. 
When they arrived, God blessed them, saying, ' May 
you ride in ships and boats ; may you cross waters and 
reach lands ; may you dress in fine clothes ; may you be 


handsome ; may you have rulers from among yourselves ; 
may you have large towns and great cities.' Then God 
went up to heaven, and the white foreigners returned. 
Henceitisthat the white foreigners are more skilful than 
all other nations, and ride in ships to the present time." 

Return of God. — The return of God is confidently 
expected ; and the dead trees are represented as blossom- 
ing on his arrival. 

" At the appointed season, God will come ; 
The dead trees will blossom and flower: 
When the appointed season comes, God will arrive; 
The mouldering trees will blossom and bloom again: 
God will come and bring the great Thau-thee j 
We must worship, both great and small." 

King. — Many of their compositions represent them as 
expecting great temporal prosperity under their own kings. 

" O children and grandchildren ! the Karens will yet dwell in the 
city with the golden palace. If we do well, the existence of other 
kings is at an end. The Karen king will yet appear, and when he 
arrives there will be happiness." 


Death is a fearful event to a Karen. Whenever the 
death of an individual is announced, the man drops his 
axe, the woman her shuttle, and the child his toy, not to 
be resumed again that day ; and the unfinished work, 
never. The house, or canoe, or other article, on which 
the man was at work when the intelligence reached him, 
is abandoned to the beasts of the forest ; and the labors 
of the loom are given to the worms, as articles more 
deadly than the tunic of Nessus. The corpse is band- 
aged up in cloths, or mats, shortly after the person has 
expired, so that no part is visible ; and then the spirits of 
deceased relatives are called to visit the person who has 
just died, and guide him to Hades. Rice is next poured 
down at the head and feet of the corpse, and a basket, 
such as a Karen carries on his back, with an axe, a knife, 
a bag, a cooking pot, and a drinking cup, are placed by 
its side, while one exclaims, " O dead ! eat, as in thy 
state of consciousness on earth ; eat, fear not, be not 



ashamed." As the neighbors and friends arrive at the 
house, each one expresses his grief in expressions like 
the following : Alas ! what is this ! Now I am afflicted, 
indeed. Alas ! alas ! formerly thou conversedst happily 
with me. Alas ! what shall I do ! O Lord, take this my 
friend, and suffer him not to go where he will be sub- 
jected to suffering." 

It the visitor comes from a distance, food is brought 
out, and before he eats, addressing the corpse, he says, 
" O deceased ! eat and drink ; eat and drink, as in thy 
state of consciousness formerly." 

When evening comes, lights, that burn for a short 
time only, are placed near the head and feet of the corpse, 
to represent the evening and morning stars, which, in 
their legendary lore, are lights showing departed spirits 
the way to Hades ; and believing, as they do, that that 
v/orld is antipodal to this, they say to the corpse, " The 
foot of the tree is there," pointing to the summit of a 
tree ; " The tops of the trees are there," pointing to the 
roots; "The west is there," pointing to the east; and 
" The east is there," pointing to the west. At the close of 
this address, the people commence singing the following 
lines : — 

" The light at the head of the corpse is red, red, 
The light at the foot of the corpse is red, red. 
He goes with a torch, the morning star, 
He goes with a light, the morning star." 

Hot water is next poured out near the head and feet of 
the corpse, which closes all the regular ceremonies till 
the burning of the body, which may occur next morning, 
or be delayed a day or two. 

The interval is occupied with drinking and singing, 
slowly marching round the corpse. The compositions 
that are sung often partake of a dramatic character, and 
the dialogue is sung by men and women alternately, and 
are usually but ill adapted to the solemnities of the oc- 

In the morning, when the body is burned, a bone is 
taken from the ashes, and preserved with great care till a 
convenient time for assembling a large concourse of 
people. Booths are then built on the bank of some 
ptream, a feast made, and the ceremonies renewed around 
the bone, which have been described above as performed 


around the body. On the evening of the day that the 
bone is buried, the friends of the deceased assemble 
around the bone, and sing a dirge. 

At the close of the ceremonies around the bone, a ban- 
gle is hung up, and a cup of r'ce placed under it. The 
departed spirit is then calle<^ , for it is supposed to be 
hovering around, till the funeral rites are completed. 
When the spirit answers the call, the string trembles, 
the bangle turns round, and the string snaps in two as 
if by miracle. If no answer is returned, the spirit is 
gone to hell. When he signifies that he is present, he 
is guided to the graveyard, which is always one of the 
best spots in the neighborhood. Here the bone is buried, 
and money, with other articles, thrown on the grave. 
Should any one take the money that is left on a grave, 
he would become childless, and his family extinct, which 
is a sufficient terror to a Karen to keep him honest. 
After burying the bone, the spirit is addressed as fol- 
lows : " Now thou mayst go to thy land, thy country, 
thy kingdom. When thou arrivest, do not forget us. We 
shall come to thee. Go not to hell ; go to the abodes of 
bliss. As to this silver, if thou art taken by force, buy 
thyself with it. Go. Here is thy small house ; thy 
great house is on the River Naudokwa. Go." 

The Karens suppose that these ceremonies are of a 
comparatively recent origin, and say that they formerly 
buried their dead. Burning the body and singing around 
the bone were first introduced, as some of their traditions 
say, by an individual of the name of Mautau, to whom 
many of the songs are attributed. Others charge the 
whole on Satan himself; to which I see no special ob- 
jection, for their funerals are complete scenes of bac- 
chanalian revelry, in which the spirit of Satan most 
certainly presides. 


"There are two classes of prophets," say the elders; 
" the one holds communication with demons ; the other 
with God." And after adding that the good prophets 
are not now sent unto them, on account of their disc- 



bedience, they say, " God would have given us one 
for each generation ; but because we did not obey, 
prophets abound, and they are unrighteous." These 
existing prophets confine themselves to directing what 
offerings shall be made to appease the demons, that 
are supposed to produce sickness ; and they are con- 
stantly consulted for this purpose. They pretend to 
hold a conversation with unseen spirits, when applica- 
tions are made to them for information, and according 
to the response of the "familiar spirit," they decide. 

There is another class of persons, called Bukhos, who 
are more directly connected with the worship of God, 
and who often unite the character of extraordinary re- 
ligious teacher with that of prophet. These Bukhos 
usually, if not uniformly, condemn the practice of 
making offerings to demons, and represent to the peo- 
ple that God is, in some way or other, about to appear 
for their salvation. 

A distinguished one, who lives about ten days' jour- 
ney up the Yun-za-len, a tributary of the Salwen, that 
rises near Toung-u, is mentioned by Mr. Judson, in his 
journal of May, 1832, as "an extraordinary young man 
of twenty, who, while he pretends to hold communica- 
tion with the invisible world, professes also to be desirous 
of finding the true God, and becoming acquainted with 
the true religion. Our people remained with him three 
days; during which time, they were surrounded with a 
crowd of his followers, and were obliged to preach day 
and night." 

I visited this prophet in the year 1837, and found him, 
like many others with whom I have met in my travels, 
without any settled principles, unless a heterogeneous 
mixture of old Karen traditions and Boodhism can be 
called such. His leading object, as with most of his 
class, seemed to be, to give himself importance, and 
acquire an influence over the people. In this, he ap- 
pears to have succeeded tolerably well ; for at the last 
dates, he had successfully headed a revolt of the Karens 
against the Burmans, and compelled a detachment of 
their soldiers, that was sent against him, to retire. * 

One of the most extraordinary of these men is the 
one that brought the Book of Common Prayer to Mr 



In Christian lands, there is a halo of romance some- 
times thrown around the mission enterprise, which the 
realities of life often dissipate ; but still oftener, scenes 
of surpassing interest are witnessed on missionary ground, 
whose bright colors are never seen at home. 

The history of the introduction of Christianity among 
the Karens is, perhaps, too full of " truth stranger than 
fiction " to be believed by those who have not been act- 
ors in the scenes themselves. Take Mergui, for a single 
instance. Mr. and Mrs. Wade were the first to visit the 
Karen villages of Mergui with the gospel ; and a more 
interesting reception than was given them, it were diffi- 
cult to find on record. They were led by an intelligent 
chief, now a pillar in the church, and were met on their 
arrival by "several young women, whom he had invited, 
among others, to meet them," singing a hymn, of which 
the first verse and chorus was, 

" The Lord his messengers doth send, 
And he himself will quickly come ; 
The priests of Boodh, whose reign is short, 
Must leave the place to make them room." 

Three or four years afterwards, the writer of these 
pages entered the province at its other extremity ; and 
writing on the spot, he says, " My entrance into this 
village reminded me of Paul's into Lystra. The people 
almost quarrelled for the honor of receiving me ; each 
protesting, ' My house is the best.' They had never 
heard of the gospel before, and were more attentive, and 
quite as orderly at worship as any Christian congregation 
I ever saw." 

These people now form a part of the settlement at 
Te-wa, where there is a flourishing little church. 

On descending the river, two days' journey farther 
south, " We met," says the journal, " with a religious 
teacher and his wife, who live in the neighborhood. 
They begged us to stop ; but, after a little conversation, 
they concluded to return, and started on before us. On 
reaching his house, where I now am, we found every 
thing prepared for us, in the very first of Karen style, 
with their garments spread on the floor, for me to walk 


upon from one room to another. While listening to the 
reading of the ♦ View,' * in Karen, he occasionally ex- 
claimed, 'The Lord,' 'The Lord,' 'The Lord.' He has 
built an addition to his house as a place of worship ; and 
himself and such of his neighbors as are disposed assem- 
ble every night to worship, where they pray and sing 
hymns. In his place of worship I found a shrine, sur- 
rounded with something resembling a Chinese pagoda, 
and many ridiculous ornaments. I told him these things 
were not proper. 'Well, then,' said he, ' I will destroy 
them, if you say they are wrong. I made them through 
ignorance, not knowing what was proper. I have been 
long living in hopes that I should see a teacher among 
us, and, now you have come, I am determined to do as 
you say.' " 

" I was awaked in the middle of the night by the 
singing of some women in the next room, who composed 
as they sung. I caught a few verses." — • 

" If we know the Lord Jesus Clirist, 
We are delivered from our sins j 
Whoever knows the Lord Jesus Christ 
Is delivered from his sins. 
Upon the whole earth 
No other God should be worshipped ; 
Throughout the whole earth 
No other God should be worshipped. 
Praise the law of God ; 
It is pure as water, even as sand ; 
Praise the truth of God ; 
It is pleasant as water, smooth as iron." 

This man and his wife, with many of their neighbors, 
were subsequently baptized, and formed the little church 
at Tamla, most of whose members have since moved up 
the river to Mata. 

Ten days later, on returning to Tavoy from Mergui, by 
the seaboard, through the Burman villages, we lost our 
way, the day after leaving Mergui, as detailed in the fol- 
lowing communication, written a few years after. 

" My cogitations were interrupted by a man behind 
calling out, in his idiom, ' The road is lost.' Sure enough, 
the road was gone, and we soon found ourselves on the 
edge of a dismal swamp, covered by a species of ficus, 
with its thousand arms, the sure index of inextricable 
mazes and inundating tide waters. 

* The title of a tract. — E. 


"•' Having been walking from the first blush of morn, with 
a view to reaching a small Burman village by the middle 
of the afternoon, we were sufficiently fatigued to lie 
down, and wait for the fresh impetus of the morrow ; but 
unfortunately, our scrip was out, and every voice coun- 
selled to move on ; but in what direction was not so clear. 
After a short pause, the Karens instinctively turned to 
the mountains, and we plunged through a thick under- 
growth of briers and creepers. 

'The tropic sun had laid his burning head 
On twilight's lap,' 

when we suddenly found ourselves on the banks of a 
mountain stream, and entered a path that appeared to 
lead to a Karen house. The energy of hope carried us 
up the hills, till the last gleam of day died away, and the 
stars of night hung trembling in the heavens. We 
reached afield that had been cultivated ; but, alas ! it had 
also been abandoned. Nature was exhausted ; and, after 
making a fire, to keep away the tigers heard around, we 
spent a few minutes in considering the passage, ' Thy will 
be done,' and closed with prayer and praise to Him that 
doeth all things well. Not having either dinner nor sup- 
per to prepare, our arrangements for the night were soon 
made. I moved away the large stones in a small ravine, 
and, under a few wild plaintain leaves to defend me from 
the dew, lay down to sleep to the music of a sleepless 
brook, that rolled at my feet. We awoke with the wailing 
cry of the long-armed apes, bounding from tree to tree 
in the forests beyond us. 'The morning has whitened,' 
said a Karen at my side, pointing to the first glow of 
dawn on the mountain summit; and while the njorning 
fog swept in gigantic fleeces over the plain below, except 
an occasional knoll peering above its waves, like an island: 
in the ocean, we commenced retracing our steps down 
the hill to a path at the foot, that had been observed 
leading to the north. Endeavoring to conjecture in what 
way our losing the road would be overruled to our profit 
and usefulness, we moved on till nine or ten o'clock, when 
our eyes were gladdened by the sight of a Karen house. 
An old man on the veranda gazed at us a few moments 
in immovable silence, like the deer of his native hills, 
and then, turning to his family in the house, he called out, 
*The teacher has arrived ; the teacher has arrived.' The 



next moment he was before me, saying, ' I will show 
you to the zayat. It is close by 5 only a call distant.' 
This was passing strange to me ; but as it appeared all a 
thing of course to the old man, 1 followed on to a more 
than ordinarily comfortable zayat in the neighborhood of 
some Karen houses, whose inmates were soon around 
me, like Cornelius and his friends, looking, though not 
saying, ' We are all here present before God to hear the 
things commanded thee of God ! ' It appeared, on ex- 
planation, that it had been told them, ' The teacher is in 
the jungle, and will call on you. You must build a zayat 
for his reception, and listen to his precepts.' The zayat 
was just completed, and they were looking for my arrival 
daily, when I lost my way ; and instead of leaving their 
settlement many miles to the eastward, as I intended, I 
was most unintentionally led among them. I had fallen 
on an oasis in the desert, and here a few days were spent 
which afford pleasure in the retrospect, and will afford 
pleasure, it is believed, in eternity. W6 parted with 
mutual regret, the people loading us with substantial 
proofs of their attachment in the shape of rice, fowls, 
eggs, yams, sweet potatoes, and sugar-cane ; while their 
last words were, ' You must come again next year, and 
baptize us.' Another year came, and another, and an- 
other ; each year bringing with it that share of culture to 
this little spot, which the missionary and his native as- 
sistants could spare from a large field with numerous and 
urgent demands. The result was, a Christian population 
of about fifty, nearly twenty of whom have learned to 
read, and more than twenty of whom have united with a 
Christian church on a profession of faith." They now 
form a part of the flourishing village of Ka-bin. 

" From the uttermost part of the earth we hear songs j 
' Glory to the righteous.' 
For as the earth bringeth forth her bud, 
And as the garden causeth the things that are sown in it 
to spring forth, 
So the Lord God will cause righteousness and praise 
To spring forth before all the nations." * 

• I>3dah 24 : 11. 61 : 11. 







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PRINCIPLES OF ZOOLOGY; Touching the Structure, Devel- 
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VericouPv, formerly lecturer in' the Royal Athenaeum of Paris, 
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D.D. President of BroAvn University, and Profess )r of Moral 
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Wayland, D.D., President of Brown University. 'Fifteenth 
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Spirit of the Pilgrims. 

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BLAKE'S NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. Being Conversations on 
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I have an opportunity." 

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YOUNG LADIES' CLASS BOOK. A Selection of Lessons for 
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*' Gentlemkx:— We have examined the Young Ladies' Class Book with 
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Bespectfully yoiu-s, Barnum Field, Abraham Andrews, 

R. G. Pakkee, Charles Fox." 

From the Principal of the Mount Vernon School, Boston, 

"I have examined with much interest the Young Ladies' Class Book, by 
Mr. Bailey, and have been very highly pleased witli its contents. It is my 
intention to introduce it into my own school ; as I regard it as not only remark- 
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conduct, which will be in every respect favorable." — Jacob Abbott. 

""We were never so struck with the importance of having reading books 
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Bufficient evidence of the character of the work." — Amials of Education. 

C. K. Dillaway, A.m., late Principal in the Boston Latin 
School. With Engravings. Eighth Ed., improved. 12mo., 
naif mor. Price 67 cts. 

From E. Bailey, Principal of the Toung Ladies' High School, Boston, 

"Having used Dillawai/^s Ronuin Antiquities and Ancient Mythology ia 
my school for several years, I commend it to teachers with great confidence, 
as a valuable text-book on those interesting branches of education. 

E. Bailet." 

" The want of a cheap volume, embracing a succinct account of ancient 
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the wants of those who are just entering upon a classical career; and we 
deem it but a simple act of justice to say, that it supplies the want, which, 
as we have before said, has long been felt. A peculiar merit of this compila- 
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disgusting oh!<ccnitics of ancient mythology; while, at the same time, nothing 
as omitted which a pure mind would feel interested to know. We recom- 
mend the book as a valuable addition to the treatises in our schools .»nd 
academies." — Education Reporter, Boston, 

"It was reserved for one of our Boston instructors to apply the condensing 
apparatus to this mass of crudities, and so to modernize the antiquities of the 
old Romans, as to make a befitting abridgment for schools of the first order. 
Mr. Dillaway has presented such a compilation as must be interesting to lads, 
and become popular as a text-book. Historical facts are stated with great sim- 
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and Man. Lectures on Comparative Physical Geography, in 
its relation to the History of Mankind. By Arnold Guyot. 
Translated from the French by Prof. C, C. Felton. With 
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the volume before us, the profound investigations of Humboldt, Ritter, 
and others, in Physical Geography, are presented in a popular form, and 
with tlie clearness and vivacity so characteristic of French treatises on 
science. The work should be introduced into our higher schools." — 
Tlie Independent, JV. Y. 

" These lectures form one of the most valuable contributions to geo- 
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invest the study of geography with an interest which will, we doubt not, 
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THE CICERONIAN ; Or the Prussian Method of Teaching the 
Latin Language. Adapted to the use of American Schools, by 
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From the Professors of Harvard University. 

" We beg leave to observe, that we consider this book a very valuable addi- 
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reasoning power of the pupil into action, and gives, from the beginning, a 
deeper insight into the verj- nature, principles, and laws not onlj' of the Latin 
language, but of language in general. If the book required any other 
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enced a scholar as Dr. Scars, it would be tliis, that the system illustrated in it 
is not a mere theory, but lias been practically tested by many able instructors 
in Germany. We wish that the same trial may be made here. 

Very respectfully yours, Charles Beck, 

C. C. Feltox." 

From S. H. Taylor, Principal of Phillips' Academy, Andover. 

"I have examined, ^^'ith much pleasure and profit, the ' Ciceronian,' pre- 
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pupil habits of close thought and nice discrimination. The plan of the work 
is excellent. S. H. Tayloe." 

MEMORIA TECHNICA ; Or, the Art of Abbreviating those 
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earlier days." — Providence Journal. 

GESENIUS'S HEBREW GRAMMAR, Translated from the 
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basis of the German Work of Dr. G. E. Guhrauer. By John 
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LIFE OF ROGER WILLIAMS, The Founder of the State of 
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* Okrislian World. 



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THE CHURCH IN EARNEST; By John Angell James. 
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Edited by Rev. J. 0. Choules. New Edition ; with an Intro- 
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THE EXTENT OF THE ATONEMENT, in its relation to God 
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Neio York Recorder, 

"As a treatise on the grand relation of the Atonement, it is a book which 
may be emphatically said to contain the ' seeds of tilings,' the elements of 
mightier and nobler contributions of thought respecting the sacrifice of Christ, 
than any modern production. It is characterized by highly original and 
dense trains of thought, which make the reader feel that he is holding com- 
munion with a mind that can 'mingle with the universe.' We consider this 
volume as setting the long and fiercely agitated question, as to the extent of 
the Atonement, completely at rest. Posterity will thank the author till the 
latest ages, for his illustrious arguments." — iVipw York Evan'jpUnt. 


in the Conversion of the World. By Thomas W. Jexkyn, 
D.D. 12mo., cloth. Price 85 cents. 

" The discussion is eminently scriptural, placing its grand theme, the union 
of the Holy Spirit and the Church in the conversion of the world, in a very 
clear and atfecting light." — Christian Watchman. 

" A very excellent work upon a very important subject. The author seems 
to have studied it in all its bearings, as presented to his contemplation in the 
sacred volume." — London, Eva^.gelical Magazine. 

" Fine talent, sound learning, and scriptural piety pervade every page. It is 
impossible that it can be read without producing great eftects. Mr. Jenkyn 
deserves the thanks of the whole body of Christians for a book which will 
greatly benefit the world and the church." — London Evangelist. 

ANTIOCH ; Or, Increase of Moral Power in the Church of 
Christ. By Rev. P. Church. With an Introductory Essay, 
by Baeon Stow, D.D. 18mo., cloth. Price 50 cents. 

"It is a book of close and consecutive thought, and treats of subjects which 
are of the deepest interest, at the present time, to the churches of this country. 
The author is favorably known to the religious public, as an original thinker, 
and a forcible writer." — Christian Reflector. 

" By some this book v/ill be condemned, by many it will be read with 
pleasure, because it analyzes and renders tangible, princii)les that have been 
vaguely conceived in many minds, reluctantlj'^ promulgated, and hesitatingly 
believed. We advise our bretliren to read the book, and judge for them- 
selves." — Baptist Record. 

• It is the work of an original thinker, on a subject of great practical interest 
to the church. It is replete with suggestions, which, in our view, are emi- 
nently worthy of consideration." — Phila. Christian Ohsei~ver. 

With an Introductory Essay, by T. Chalmers, D.D. A new 
and improved edition. Edited by H. Malco3I, D.D. 18mo., 
cloth. Price 38 cents. 

Sartorius, D. D. Translated from the German, by Rev. 
O. 'S. Stearns, A. M. Cloth. 42 cents. 

" A work of much ability, and presenting the argument in a style that 
will be new to most American readers, it will deservedly attract atten- 
tion." — vV. Y. Observer. 


MEMOIR OF ANN H. JUDSON, late Missionary to Burmah. 
By Rev. James D. Knowles. With a likeness. 12mo., fine 
Edition, price 85 cents. 18mo. Price 68 cents. 

" We are particularly gratified to perceive a new edition of the Memoirs of 
Mrs. Judson. She was an honor to our countr_y — one of the most noble- 
Bpirited of her sex. It cannot, therefore, be surprising, that so manj-- editions, 
and so many thousand copies of her life and adventures have been sold. 
The name — the long career of suffering — the self-sacrificing spirit of the 
retired country-girl, have spread over the whole world ; and the heroism of 
her apostleship and almost martyrdom, stands out a living and heavenly 
beacon-fire, amid the dark midnight of ages, and human history and exploits. 
She was the first luoman who resolved to become a missionary to heathen 
countries." — American Traveller. 

" This is one of the most interesting pieces of female biography which has 
ever come under our notice. No quotation, which our limits allow, would do 
justice to the facts, and we must, therefore, refer our readers to the volume 
itself. It ought to be immediately added to every family library." 

London Miscellany, 

to Bunnah, containing much intelligence relative to the Bur- 
man mission. By Rev. Aloxzo King. Embellished with a 
Likeness ; a beautiful Vignette, representing the baptismal 
scene just before his death ; and a drawing of his tomb. By 
Rev. H. Malcom, D.D. 12mo. Price 75 cents. 

" One of the brightest luminaries of Burmah is extinguished — dear brother 
Boardman is gone to his eternal rest. He fell gloriously at the head of his 
troops — in the arms of victory, — thirty-eight wild Karens having been 
brought into the camp of king Jesus since the beginning of the yearj besides 
the thirty-two that were brought in during the two preceding years. Dis- 
abled by wounds, he was obliged, through the whole of the last expedition, to 
be carried on a litter ; but his presence was a host, and the Holy Spirit accom- 
panied his dying whispers with almighty influence." — Rev. Dr. Judson. 

Female Missionary to China. By Rev. J. B. Jeter. With a 
Likeness. Fourth thousand. 18mo. Price 50 cents. 

"The style of the author is sedate and perspicuous, such as we might 
expect from his known piety and learning, his attachment to missions, and 
the amiable lady whose memory he embalms. The book will be extensively 
read and eminently useful, and thus the ends sought by the author will bo 
happily secured. We think we are not mistaken in this opinion. Those 
who are interested in China, that large opening field for the glorious con- 
quests of divine truth, will be interested in this Memoir. To the friends of 
missions generally, the book is commended, as worthy of an attentive peru- 
sal." — The Family Visitor, Boston, 

ill West Africa, among the Bassas, Including a History of the 
Mission. By R. B. Medbeky. With a likeness. 18mo. 
Price 62K cents. 

" Our acquaintance with the excellent brother, who is the subject of this 
Memoir, will be long and fondly cherished. This volume, prepared by a lady, 
of true taste and talent, and of a kindred spirit, while it is but a just tribute 
to his worth, will, we doubt not, furnish lessons of humble and practical piety, 
and will give such facts relative to the mission to which he devoted his life, as 
to render it worthy a distinguished place among the religious and missionary 
biography which has so much enriched the family of God." — WatchmoM. 


THE MISSIONARY ENTERPRISE ; A Collection of Discourses 
on Christian i^Iissions, by American Authors. Edited bv 
Baron Stoav, D.D. 12mo., cloth. Price 85 cents. , 

" If. we desired to put into the hands of a foreigner a fair exhibition of the 
capacity and sp.rit of the American church, ve would give hhn this volume 
Yoa have here tiirmvn together a few discourses, preachld f ro n t me to time* 
hL ^^ ^"i"''^"'"^!,'^^''°^ different denominations, as circumst™ces Ce 
demanded them ,• and you see the stature and feel the pulse of the Americla 
Church m these discourses with a certainty not to be mistaken. ^™"'^'^^ 
♦•. ,u r"" * '® '"^'^ .*^^1''* °^ ^^^ American church, We venture the asser- 
takn in TtsnnYr %l't\'^'>''^ ^.^^ -^h an amTunt of forceful avaUabie 
laient m its pulpit. The energy, directness, scope, and intellectual -snirit of 
«ie Amencan church is wonderful. In this book, the discourses Cor 
Beecher, Pres. AVayland, and the Rev. Dr. Stone of the Episcoparchurcfi are 

K^r^o*^'' Thfs vot'''*^"-,iHi"°"" ''■'^^"''' eorrectnesst-^nd&inrpopu- 
JS "^"^"'"'^ ""■'" ^''^^ ^ ^'^'^^ circulation."- r/ie .Yew Englander. 

This work contains fifteen sermons on Missions, bv Rev. Drs Wavland 
Griffin, Anderson, WiUiams. Beecher. Miller, Fuller Banian Stone^ Mason 
and hj Rev. Messrs. Kirk, Stow, and Ide. It is a rix;h treasu;e whfch ou^ht 
to be in the possession of every American Christian." -CarXai^.^r^" 

THE GREAT COMMISSION ; Or, the Christian Church consti- 
hited and charged to convey the Gospel to the world. A Prize 
Essay By John Harris, D.D. With an Introductory Essav, 
S- . ii n'n ^^^^"^^^is, D.D. Sixth thousand. 12mo., cloth! 

"His plan is original and comprehensive. In fiUino- it un the author hi^ 
Sou7hTtTat'are^o:'"l- ^'«\-"d glowing illustrations: Id'^w'jth't ains of 
thought that are sometimes almost resistless in their appeals to the conscience 
?^I-^ 'f r' •"O'-f distinguished for its argument., and its geniiTthan for 
the spirit of deep and fervent piety that pervades it."- The jfayspring 

venJlv pl^^lt^'fi"".'"'';^''''^^ "^""^^^ ^""^ ^\^S^rvt. Its sentiments richly and fer- 
vency evangelical, its argumentation conclusive." -lion's Herald, Boston 

would bTbutSlll'ir'J'/" *Il' friends of missions of all denominations 
tTe credit of hnv?n/.n^1-' "^^ ^^^^O"- deserves and will undoubtedly receive 
by the bIessL<.rf f'od^^i h1?- °^7 '^^'^ "^ that great moral machine which, 
oy me Diessing ot Crod, is desaned to evangelize the world." 

, Christian Secretary, Hartford. 

«.>,^i ,, ^1*^1*. *^^ volume will be attentively and prayerfully read by the 
tie wortT'and'IhJftr" ^'."Ih^ ^ .^ith the " Grea't Com^mis^sion "^o evang^eHze 
»^H 1 ' . that they will be moved to an immediate discharge of its high 
and momentous obligations.— A''. E. Furitan, Boston. ^ 

THE KAREN APOSTLE ; Or, Memoir of Ko Thah-Byu, the 

hrst Karen convert with notices concerning his Nation. By the 
Eev. Francis Mason. Edited by Prof. H. J. Ripley. Fifth 
thousand. 18mo., cloth. Price 25 cents. 

J17^^}\^ work of thrilling interest, containing the history of a remarkable 
man.and giving also, much Ti^formation respecting the Karen Mission here! 
tofore unknown in this country. It gives an account, whfch mu t be ittraci 
hv m w'^' Its novelty, of a people that have been but 'little known and v ited 
i^^^QS woc^C^'T' '"•'^'^''l"/ *^^^ y^^''- The baptism of Ko Tliah Byu in 
S. f *^f beginning of the mission, and at the end of these twelve >wf 
twelve hundred and seventy Karens are officially reported as members of the 
hvT. I'' '° ^''?^ standing. The mission has bc-eu carried oi pie-eminently 
dLnP. * '^^'^""u^''''' =^°^ there is no doubt, from much touch ngevi^ 

foSirs^p'reT^srs.'^"^"™''' '"^^ '""'^ "^ "^^-^'^ p-'^"-'^ -'-s 


THE PSALMIST : A Xew Collection of Hymns, for the use 

of the Baptist Churches. By Bakon Stow and S. F. Smith. 

Assisted by W. E. WilUaras, Geo. B. Ide, II. W. Griswold, 

S. P. Hill, J. B. Taylor, J. L. Dagg, W. T. Brantly, K. B. C. 

Howell, Samuel W. Lynd, and John M. Peck. 

Pulpit edition, 12mo. sheep. Price $1.25. Pew edition, ISmo., 
75 cents. Pocket edition, 32mo., 56^1 cts. — All the different 
sizes supplied in extra styles of binding at corresponding 

*,* This work it mayjie said, has become the book of the Baptist denomi- 
nation, having been introduced extensively into every State in the Union, 
and the British provinces. As a collection of hymns it stands unrivalled. 

The united testimony of pastors of the Baptist churches in Boston and 
•vicinity, in New Yorlc, and in Philadelphia, of the most decided and flatter- 
ing character, has been given in favor of the book. Also, by the Professors in 
Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution, end the Kewton Theological 
Institution. The same, also, has been done by a great number of clergjrmen, 
churches, Associations, and Conventions, in everj' State of the Union. 

The following notice, from the Miami Association, of Ohio, is but a speci- 
men of a host of others, received by the publishers : 

"Your Committee recommend to the attention of the Churches, the new 
work called ' The Psalmist,' as worthy of special patronage. 1. It <s exceed- 
ingly desirable tliat our whole denomination should use in the praises of the 
sanctuary the same psahns, hj'mns. and spiritual songs. To secure uniformity, 
we prefer ' The Psalmist,' because it is strictly, and from the foundation, 
designed for the use of Baptist churches, — is not surpassed by any Hymn 
Book in the world. 2. It has been prepared with the greatest care. In no 
instance has a Hymn Book gone through so thorougli a revision. 3. It is a 
book of very superior merits. The Committee therefore recommend to the 
churches the adoption of this work as well calculated to elevate the taste and 
the devotion of the denomination." 


Fuller, of Baltimore, and J. B. Jeter, of Kichmond. (Style 
and prices same as above.) 

***This work contains nearly thirteen hundred h'jmns, original and selected, 
by 172 writers, besides pieces credited to fifty-five collections of hymns or other 
works, the authorship of which is unknown. Forty-five are anonymous, being 
traced neither to authors nor collections. 

The Supplement, occupying the place of the Chants, which in many 
sections of the country are seldom used, was undertaken by Kev. Messrs. 
Fuller and Jeter, at the solicitation of friends at the South. 

" The Psalmist contains a copious supply of excellent hymns for the 
pulpit. We are acquainted witli no collection of hymns combining, in an 
equal degree, poetic merit, evangelical sentiment, and a licli variety of sub- 
jects, with a happy adaptation to pulpit services. Old songs, like old friends, 
are more valuable than new ones. A number of the liynnis best known, most 
valued, and most fre(iuently sung in the South, are not found in the Psalmist. 
Without them, no hymn book, whatever maybe its excellences, is likely to 
become generally or permanently popular in that region." — Pre/ace. 

Music. Arranged for Hymns in ' The Psalmist,' of peculiai 
character and metre. By N. D. Gould. Price VDi cents. 



JEWETT ON BAPTISM. The Mode and Subjects of Baptism. 
By MiLO P. Jkwktt, A.M., late Professor in Marietta College 
and a licensed ]\linister of the Presbyterian Church. Tenth 
thousand. Price 25 cents. 

Rev. J. R. Graves, one of the editors of the Tennessee Baptist, in a recent 
number of his paper, says : " Who will write the history of one little Jcwett on 
jBaptifiii ? Hundreds iu our land have been converted to the truth hj perus- 
ing that book. In the past year, Remington, an able JMethodist preacher, read 
that work. It resulted in his conversion —he wrote A/'.s ' reasons,' and they 
converted another preacher, and the pebble thus thrown by Bro Jcwett in the 
sea of mind, produced a wave which produced another, and thus in long suc- 
cession they will travel on, each producing its successor until they break on 
the shores of eternity. Is the object not a commendable one? It is pouring 
oil upon the unresting wave of religious mind, lashed by angry discussions. 
Such books read iu solitude with one's Bible and his God, will hush the tem- 
pest of his owu soul to rest." 

.rUDSON ON BAPTIS3I. A Discourse on Christian Baptism; 
with many quotations from Pedobapist authors. To which ara 
added a letter to the church in Plymouth, Ms., and an address 
on the mode of baptizing. By Adonikam Judson. Fifth 
American edition, revised and enlarged by the Author. 18mo. 
Price 25 cents. 

*if* This work is now published In book form, and having been thoroughly 
revised and enlarged by its venerable author, while in this country, it will be 
sought for and read with interest by all. 

"It is a clear, calm, and convincing view of the futility of the distinguish- 
ing points of Pedobaptism. and a rational and scriptural defence of the 
baptism of persons of suitable age and qualiti cations, and in the manner 
prescribed in the New^ Testament." — Chrislian Review, Dec. 1S47. 

W. Noel. "Pie that believeth and is baptized shall be 
saved." 16mo. Cloth. Price 60 cents. 

Extract froin Preface. — During my niinisrry In the estaLlishnnent, an indefinite 
fear ol the coticlusiuus ai which I jiiight arrive, led me to avoid the sUidy of the ques- 
tion of baptism ; but I le!t obliged to examine honestl>' each passage of Scripture upon 
the subji'Ct wliich came in my way, and the evidence thus obiaint-,1 convinced me thnt 
repentance and faiih oiiarht lo precede baptism. Aware liow many arc disposed to 
attribute any opinion wliich contradicts their o\vn, to such a pariial, one-sided investi- 
gation as they practise tliemselves, I determined lo form my own judgment endrely 
by the stmly of tlie Scviptmes, and of such authors as advocate the baplism of infants. 
To that determinadon 1 liave adhered ; aud not having read a single Baptist book or 
tract, I publish the following work as an independent testimony to the exclusive right 
of believers to Cnristian baplism. 

THE CHRISTIAN REVIEW. A Quarterly Publication. Edited 
by J. D. KxowLES. Bar>^\.s Sears, and"^S. F. Sjiith. 

A limited ninnber of complete sets, from lf;36 to_ 1843 
inclusive, being the first Eight volumes, can be supphed at 
$10.00 per set, in neat Clotirbacks. 

A fcAv copies of the work, from vol. 2 to vol. 8 inclusive, 
will be supplied in boards, the seven volumes, for $5.00 per set. 

Single volumes (except the frst)^ supplied in numbers, at 
$1.00 per volume. 

This work contains valuable contributions from nil the leading men of the 
Baptist denomination, and is an important acquisition to any library. The 
present opportunity to secure sets of the early volumes of this work at thia 
greatly reduced price, will, we are sure, be embraced by many who desire to 
possess it, and may never again have so favorable an opportunity, as the 
■tock on hand is limited. 


THE FOUR GOSPELS, AVITH NOTES. Chiefly Explanatory ; 
intended principally for Sabbath School Teachers and Bible 
Classes, and as an aid to Family Instruction. By H. J. 
Ripley. With a Map of Palestine. Eighth thousand. 12mo., 
half morocco. Price $1.25. 

" The undersigned, having examined Professor Ripley's Notes on the Gos- 
pels, can recommend them with confidence to all who need such helps in the 
study of the sacred Scriptures. Those passages which all can understand are 
left 'without note or comment,' and the principal labor is devoted to the 
explanation of such parts as need to be explained and rescued from the per- 
versions of errorists, botfl the ignorant and the learned. The practical sug- 
gestions at the close of each chapter, are not the least valuable portion of the 
work. !Most cordially, for the sake of truth and righteousness, do we wish for 
these Notes a wide circulation." 

Baron Stow, R H. Nealk, K. Tuettbull, 

Daniel Sharp, J. "VV. Parker, N. Colter, 

Wm. Hague. K. W. Cushman, J. W. Boswoeth. 

Explanatorj'. Designed for Teachers in Sabbath Schools and 
Bible Classes, and as an Aid to Family Instruction. By Prof. 
H. J. Ripley. With a Map of Paul's Travels. Third Thousand. 
12mo., half morocco. Price 75 cents. 

" On examining the contents, we are favorably impressed, first, by the won- 
derful perspicuity, simplicity, and comprehensiveness of the author's rtyle ; 
secondly, by the completeness and systcjnatic arrangement of the work, in all 
its parts ; thirdly, by the correct theology, solid instruction, and consistent 
explanations of difficult passages. The work cannot fail to be received with 
favor." — Christum Reflector, Boston. 

Concordance to the Holy Scriptures ; by Alexander Cru- 
DEN, M.A. a Ncav and Condensed Edition, -with an Introduc- 
tion ; bv Rev. David King, LL.D. Fifth Thousand. Price, 
in Boards, Sl.25 ; Sheep, $1.50. 

*^* This edition is printed from English plates, and is a full and fair copy 
of all that is valuable in Cruden as a Concordance. The condensation of the 
quotations of Scripture, arranged under their most obvious heads, while it 
diminishes the bulk of the work, greatly facilitates the finding of any required 

" Those who have been acquainted with the various works of this kind 
now in use, well know that Crudcn's Concordance far excels all others. Yet 
we have in this edition the best made better. That is, the present is better 
adapted to the purposes of a Concordance, by the erasure of superfluous 
references, the omission of unnecessary explanations, and the contraction of 
quotations, &c. ; it is better as a manual, and is better adapted by its price to 
the means of many who need and ought to possess such a work, than the 
former larger and expensive edition." — Boston Recorder. 

" The new, condensed, and cheap work prepared from the voluminous and 
costly one of Cruden, opportunely fills a chasm in our Biblical literature. 
The work has been examined critically, and pronounced complete and accu- 
rate." — Baptist Record, Philadelphia. 

"This is the very work of which we hnve long felt the need, and we are 
ranch plensed that its enterprising publishers can now furnish the student of 
the Bible with a work which he so much needs at so cheap a rate." 

Advent Herald, Boston. 

" We cannot see but it is, in all points, as valuable a book of reference. &r 
ministers and Bible students, as the larger edition." — Christian Reflector. 


most important Names, Objects, and Terms, found in the 
Holy Scriptures; intended principally for Sunday School 
Teachers and Bible Classes. By H. Malco3i, D.I). Illus- 
trated by Engravings. 18mo. half morocco. One Hundreth 
thousand. Price 50 cts. 
« All who for a moment recur to the fact, that large foliog would not suffi- 
ciently elucidate the subjects which are brought to view ra the Bible, will at 
once see the difficulty which the author must have felt m compressing all tho 
information which he has so judiciously condensed. If any should inquire, 
Why have we not more, the themes being so numerous ? let such an one look 
aeain, and, perhaps, in his surprise, he will exclaim. How is it, that, in a book 
BO completely portable, we have so much? to have made a larger book as 
could have been done with far less labor than this cost, might have placed it 
beyond the reach of many, to whom it will now be useful. All who know the 
allusions to ancient customs, and Jewish usages in Eastern countries with 
which the Bible abounds, will discover something of the worth of this volume. 
It is very neatly printed on handsome type and fine paper, and will, wo 
doubt not, meet, as it deserves, a ready sale." - Chnstian natchman. 


Desioned for the Use of Bible Classes and Sabbath Schools. 

Vol.°I. Matthew, — Vol. II. John. By Rev. Wm. Hague. 

Price 17 cents each. 
SABBATH SCHOOL CLASS BOOK. Comprising copious 

Exercises on the Sacred Scriptures. By E. Lincoln. Revised 

and improved by an eminent Clergyman, and a bupermten- 

dent. Price 12K cents. 

"Having examined your Sabbath School Class Book, it gives us Pleasure to 
express our satisfaction with its design and execution. The great benefit 
which a good class book accomplishes, consists in guiding the mind of the 
scholar in the study of his lesson, and in suggesting topics of conversation to 
the teacher. To this end we think your work is well adapted : having avoided 
lu a great degree, the evils of e-^reme n^dun^dance^or conc.s^ness.^^^^^^ 

E. Thkeshbk, Baron Stow. 

annexed, giving in the language of the Sacred Volume, interest- 
ing portions of the History, and a concise view of the Doc- 
trfnes and Duties exhibited in the Bible. Price $1.00 per doz. 

%* Where Bibles cannot be furnished to each scholar, the Scripture Ques- 
tions may be used with convenience, as the „-«wers are printed. 

THE SABBATH SCHOOL HARMONY; containing appropri- 
ate Hvmns and Music for Sabbath Schools Juvenile Singing 
Schools, and Family Devotion. By N. D. Gould. Price 
12>^ cents. 

SCRIPTURE NATURAL HISTORY, Containing a Descriptive 
Account of Quadrupeds, Birds, Fishes, Insects, Reptiles Ser- 
pents, Plants, Trees, Minerals, Gems, and Precious Stones, 
mentioned in the Bible. By Wm. Carpenter, London ; with 
improvements, by Rev. G. b. Abbott. Illustrated by numer 
ous Engravings. 12mo. cloth. Price $1.00. 


^SL'^^^.^^r^ LADY; A Book for Girls, containing useful 
h. ts on tlie fomaation of character. Fifth thousand. 18mo., 
gilt cloth. Price 50 cents. ' 

"Having daughters of his own, and having been many yeara emnloved in 
l^fl!Jl°- ^"^ '^' >-"/'"g'.l>e hopes to be able^to offer some S adWcf'n ^ 

♦whA ' V. them in forming their characters upon the bc«t model • 

^n SaT%./''rirtbe'h-''i:''';'"'*^'"?f"''n^^fi"^'i' ^"'^ g^^'i' and then they 
will oe real <ocaes, m the highest sense." — P)-<^ace 

JlIJ^ULu^ ^"^^ of wholesome and judicious counsels, which are well fitted to 
preserve the young from the numberless evils to which they are ex nosed and 
?er"Si"tlie whoYe^'rh- ",:' "^^^''i''-^^'- '^here is a directness und?a?netne"s 

HOW TO BE A MAN; A Book for Boys, containing useful 
hints on the formation of character. Fifth thousand. 18mo., 
gilt cloth. Price 50 cents. ' 

thr^f;L^n!f/F.V'\,?""'""l''^ ^'^^^ *° contribute somcthine towards forming 
the character ofthose who are to be our future electors, lc|s!ators,<rovernOTs 
in&,, ^''k"' ^^''y^'i'^ ^^^ physicians, -after the best modd It U 
fromefito'rteTt.Tf:' '^ ^°^ Please, for gentlemen, in early youth! 

?. n-u^ ." '** fifteen or sixteen years of age." - Preface 

^o..^„ ^ contain wise and important counsels and cautions, adapted to the 
aXf* Th^™'«'"''""'"° ^^- "^" i"«e^«««ng «tyle and illu'strations of he 
ments o' ^7 nh\^^ '"'""°''' '" T'^'"^ "'"'^ ^^•*'«='=f^'l the prominent linea- 
ments o. the thrmmn young gentleman and youno Iwhi. The execution of 
the works IS of the first order, and the books will afford elegant and mos Prof- 
itable presents for the young." - American Pulpit. ^ 

ANECDOTES FOR BOYS ; Entertaining Anecdotes and Narra- 
tive., Illustrative of principles and character. 18mo., Hit cloth, 
j^nce 42 cents. ° 

and^o*meli!!m ^S'eater interest for a youthful mind than a well-told stoiy, 
The"nfl^ enPP^f 1. f^'."^-'"'?'"^^ instructions so attractive or so successfuL 

tSt therare trfe Th'i'hTnrh V' ^^' '"°-'"' P"^;"'^"^ ^"•=" '^'^ ^hild is assured 
Mai tne} are true. The book before us is conducted upon these ideas It is 
made up of a series of anecdotes, every one of which inculcates ^ome exce ! 

iecomrndT?o na^Ints '""1r*°? ""'^P "l^P''''^'^ °^ "- ''^ «k "r trstiong'y 
recoininena It to parents.' — nestern Contineiit, Jialtimore. 

ANECDOTES FOR GIRLS; Entertaining Anecdotes and Narra- 
tives, illustrative of principles and character. 18mo., gilt cloth, 
rrice 42 cents. 

Tw """'^ J' ^ ^''''•'^ ''^°?* ^^^^^ *^« beautiful volumes not to be mistaken 
They are deeply interesting and instructive, without being fictitious The* 
Xt afteVX"'^"^' ^''^'t;/"^ "Pi^'^d. with an.cral drawn^from wh some- 
what after the manner of T-^^; and no youth can read them without finding 

c«rr^'""F-/»";'"-f-'''''P^"^ *° ^""^'y ^ge- condition, and duty of life, wl 
commet.d it to families and schools." - Albany Spectator. ^ 

^^i:^^^^!^C;,^i-SLJ:'-'^' ^^-^ Volumes \nS 

CHRISTIANITY DEMONSTRATED in four distinct and inde- 
pend<;nt series of proofs ; with an explanation of the Tvpes and 
Prophecies concerning the Messiah. 12mo. Price 75' cents. 

*vY.^^''\°''^^*'' "^ "'^ '^'■'"''" ^"^ ^*=*° ^^ <='««^^fy "nd condense the evidence, 
that the whole force of each particular kind might be seen at one view He 
has also aimed to render the M^ork practical, so as to have it a book to be read 
M well as studied. The Types and Prophecies furnish an important specief 
Of evidence, and are rich in instruction upon the way of Salvation. 

Gilt Edges and beautifully Ornamented Covers. Price 31)^ rents sack. 

DAILY MANNA for Christian Pilgrims. By Kev. B. Stow, D.D. 

H. A. Gkayes. 

THE YOUNG COMxlIL'NICANT. An Aid to the Right Under 
standing and Spiritual Improvement of the Lord's Supper. 


THE BIBLE AND THE CLOSET. Or, how we may read the 
Scriptures with the most spiritual profit. And Secret Prayer 
successfully managed. Edited by Rev. J. 0. Choules. 

THE MARRIAGE RING, or how to make Home Happy. From 
the writings of J. A. James. 

LYRIC GEMS. A Collection of Original and Select Sacred 
Poetry. Edited by Rev. S. F. Smith. 

THE CASKET OF JEWELS, for Young Christians. By Jajies, 
Edwakds, and Harris. 

THE CYPRESS WREATH. A Book of Consolation for those 
who Mourn. Edited by Rev. R. W. GraswoLD. 

THE MOURNER'S CTIAPLET. An Offering of Sympathy for 
Bereaved Friends. Edited by John Keese. 

THE FAMILY CIRCLE. Its Affections and Pleasures. Edited 
by the Rev. H. A. Gkaves. 

THE FAMILY ALTAR. Or the Duty, Benefits, and Mode of 
conducting Family Worship. 

Sets of the above, in neat boxes, and forming a beautiful " Jilinia- 
ture Library'" in 12 Vols. Price $3.75. 

THE SILENT COMFORTER. A Companion for the Sick Room. 
By Mrs. Louisa Paysox Hopkins. 

GOLDEN GEMS; for the Christian. Selected from the writings 
of Rev. John Flavel, with, a Memoir of the Author, by Rev. 
Joseph Banvard. 

DOUBIxE BnNIATURES. Price 50 Cents Each. 

THE WEDDING GIFT: Or, the Duties and Pleasures of Do- 
mestic Life. 

THE YOUNG CHRISTIAN'S GUIDE to the Doctrines and 
Duties of a Religious Life. 






By Francis Wayland, D. D. 

Second Edition. 12mo. ' Price, $1 00. 

" Few sermons contain so much carefully arranged thought as these by 
Dr. Wayland. The thorough logician is apparent throughout the volume, 
and there is a classic purity in the diction unsurpassed by any writer, and 
equalled by very few." — JVew York Commercial Advertiser. 

" They are the careful production of a matured and powerful intellect, 
and were addressed to a thinking and well-informed audience, and are 
especially adapted for the educated and thoughtful man." — Clir, AUiance. 

" No thinking 'man can open to any portion of it without finding his 
attention strongly arrested, and feeling inclined to yield his assent to those 
self-evincing statements which appear on every page. As a writer. Dr. 
Wayland is distinguished by simplicity, strength, and comprehensiveness. 
He addresses himself directly to the intellect more than to the imagination ; 
to the conscience more than to the passions. Yet, through the intellect 
and the conscience, he often reaches the depths of our emotive nature, and 
rouses it by words of power. We commend these stirmons to all students 
of moral and religious truth, to all lovers of sound thought conveyed in 
elegant diction." — Watchman ^ Reflector. 

" The discourses are characterized by all that richness of thought and 
elegance of language for which their talented author is celebrated. The 
whole volume is well worthy of the pen of the distinguished scholar and 
divine from whom it emanates." — Dr. Baird's Christian Unioiu 


Or Composition and Delivery of Sermons. 
Bv Henry J. Ripley, Professor in Newton Theological Institution. 

Including TVare^s Hints on Extemporaneous Preaching. 
Ifimo. Price, 75 cents. 

"An admirably prepared work, clear and succinct in its positions and 
recommendations, soundly based on good authority, and well supported by 
a variety of reading and illustrations. It is well adapted for a healthy dis- 
cipline of the faculty, and there are few preachers who might not with 
profit revise their practice by its pages. It is worthy, too, of being a com- 
panion to Whately, in the general study of Rhetoric." — JV. Y. Literary 

*' Prof. Ripley possesses the highest qualifications for a work of this kind. 
His position has given him great experience in the peculiar wants of theo- 
logical students." — Providence Journal. 

" This work belongs among the substantials of our literature. It is man- 
ifestly the fruit of mature thought and large observation ; it is pervaded by 
a manly tone, and abounds in judicious counsels ; it is compactly written, 
and admirably arranged, both for study and reference. It will become a 
text-book for theological students ; it deserves to be read by all ministers 
who can avail thera'^elves of it, and especially by all young rainislers." — 
JV. Y. Recorder, 



jfls exhibited in the Life, Precepts, and early Disci-pies of the Qreat Redeemer 
By E.»L. Magoon. 

12mo. Price, $1 25. 

" It is adapted to the spirit of the times. It meets and answers the great 
inquirj' of the present day. It describes clearly the corruptions ofpast 
times, the imperfections of the present, and the changes that must he 
effected in the forms and spirit of relig'ion, and through religion, upon the 
State, to secure to us better and brigliter prospects for the future. The 
author is not afraid to expose and condemn the errors and corruptions, 
either of the church or state." — Christian Watchman. 

" It is a very readable, and we think will prove a useful book. The ar- 
gument is clear and well sustained, and the style bold and direct. The 
tone and spirit of the entire work are that of an independent thinker, and 
of a man whose sympathies are with the many and not with the few, with 
no privileged cluss, but with the human race. We commend this hook to 
all lovers of true liberty and of a pure Ciiristianity," — Providence Journal. 

" Mr. Magoon thinks boldly, and speaks frankly, and with a variety and 
freshness of illustration that never fail to command attention." — JVeto 
York Tnbune. 

" He considers Christianity in all its parts as essentially republican. He 
has maintained his position with great tact. It is a clear, striking, attrac- 
tive presentation of his views, and the reasons for them. It will excite 
attention, both from tlie subject itself, and from the manner in which it is 
handled." — Philadelphia Chronicle. 

"This book is one which the masses will read with avidity, and its pe- 
rusal, we tliink, will fire up the zeal of some Christian scholars." — Baptist 


Or, Illustrations of practical Godliness, drawn from the Book of Wisdom. 

By E. L. Magoon, 

12mo. Price, 90 cents. 

" He is quaint, sententious. He has indeed the three great qualities, 
*pith, point, and pathos ;' and always enforces high and noble sentiments." 
— JVew York Recorder. 

" It is a popular manual of great practical utility. " — Ch. Chronicle, Phila. 

" The subjects are so selected as to embrace nearly all the practical 
duties of lifi'. The work, in consequence of this peculiar character, will 
be found extensively useful." — Rochester Democrat. 

" The work abounds with original and pithy matter, well adapted to en- 
gage the attention and to reform the life. We hope these discourses will 
be extensively read." — Morning- Star, Dover. 

" It is an excellent book for young people, and especially for young men, 
amidst the temptations of business and pleasure." Albany Express. 




Under the care of the American Baptist Missionary Union. 

By William Gammell, A. M. 

With seven Maps. 12mo. Price, Seventy-five cents. 

" We welcome with unfeigned pleasure this new contribution to thff 
literature of Christian Missions. The author relates the history of the 
several missions in his own words, presenting a concise and luminous nar- 
rative of each. The volume is written in an easy and elegant style, and is 
worthy of the high station and name of the author." — Baptist Magazine. 

" The need for such a work has long been felt. It is true that the matter 
here presented has been acceptable in other forms. But it needed to be 
condensed, arranged, and presented to the reader in an attractive form. To 
all who wish to comprehend the present position of our stations, by a 
knowledge of their past history, it will be an invaluable aid. Indeed, a 
copy should be in every family. Pastors and others who wish to urge for- 
ward the home work of foreign missions, would do well to circulate it as 
widely as possible in the churches." — Philadelphia Chronicle. 

" Prof. Gammell is a writer of rare taste. The preparation of such a 
work could not have fallen into better hands. The reader is borne along 
from chapter to chapter with a narrative which, while it fully satisfies his 
desire to know, commends itself as entirely truthful and trustworthy. The 
facts recorded are as carefully stated as the style of the work is chastened 
and pure. That it will greatly promote the missionary spirit, and serve to 
increase the missionary zeal of our churches, we have no question. In 
reading wo have been struck with the diiference between a knowledge of 
our missions, gathered from magazines and newspapers scattered through 
successive years, and that which is obtained from a compact and authori- 
tative narrative, bringing the whole before the observer at a single view. 
Let pastors, friends of missions, agents, and colporteurs, scatter it by thou- 
sands. Like bread cast upon the waters, it will come back in prayers and 
blessings. No Baptist family should be without it." — JV. Y. Recorder. 

" This work is the result of great labor and research, and presents an 
exceedingly satisfactory view of the missionary operations of the Baptists 
in this country. It is well that it has fallen into the hands of a man whose 
extensive knowledge and good judgment and candid Christian spirit qualify 
him so eminently for such a service." dlbany Argus. 

" Emanating from such a source, and under such auspices, the volume 
before us is a valuable contribution to American literature, as well as to 
the history of Christian missions. Prof. Gammell has executed his task 
with singular success. The style, always clear and correct, is graceful and 
flowing, and in many a passage, descriptive of the toils and adventures of 
missionary life, is full of eloquence and beauty."— Pro^xdence Journal. 

" Prof. Gammell has exhibited evidence, in this volume, of deep research 
and great fidelity. He has not merely furnished us with statistics, but has 
thrown around his subject almost the attraction of romance. It will be 
read with much interest, we think, by laymen, and will be especially useful 
to clergymen as an authoritative reference book. We heartily commend 
this volume to our readers." — Baptist Memorial. 

{fy' The work is printed in handsome style, and sold at the very low price of 
75 cents per copy. Pastors, agents, and others who may engage in its circji- 
lation, toill be supplied on very liberal terms, by the dozen or hundred. 


Lectures on Comparative Physical Geography, in its Relation to the History 

of Mankind. 

Bv Arnold Guyot, Prof. Phys. Geo. and Hist., Neuchatel. 

Translated from the French by Prof. C. C. Felton. With Illustrations, 

12mo. Price, $1 25. 

" The work is one of high merit, exhibiting a wide range of knowledge, 
great research, and a philosopliical spirit of investigation. Its perusal will 
well repay the most learned in such subjects, and give new views to all of 
man's relation to the globe he inhabits." — SilUman^s Journal. 

'' To the reader we shall owe no apology, if we have said enough to 
excite his curiosity, and to persuade him to look to the book itself for fur- 
ther instruction." — JVorth American Revieio. 

" The grand idea of the work is happily expressed by the author, where 
he calls it t!ie geographical march of history. * * * 'J'he man of science 
will hail it as a beautiful generalization from the facts of observation. The 
Christian, who trusts in a merciful Providence, will draw coiirage from it, 
and hope yet more earnestly for the redemption of the most degraded por- 
tions of mankind. Faith, science, learning, poetry, taste, in a word, 
genius, have liberally contributed to the production of the work under 
review. Sometimes we feel as if we were studying a treatise on the exact 
sciences ; at others, it strikes the ear like an epic poem. Now it reads like 
history, and now it sounds like prophecy. It will find readers in whatever 
language it may be published ; and in the elegant English dress which it 
has received from the accomplished pen of the translator, it will not fail to 
interest, instruct, and inspire." — Christian Examiner. 

" These lectures form one of the most valuable contributions to geogra- 
phical science that has ever been published in this country. They invest 
the study of geography with an interest which will, we doubt not, surprise 
and delight many. They will open an entire new world to most readers, 
and will be found an invaluable aid to the teacher and student of geog- 
raphy." — Evening Traveller. 

" We venture to pronounce this one of the most interesting and instruc- 
tive books which have come from the American press for many a month. 
The science of which it treats, is comparatively of recent origin ; but it is of 
great importance, not only on account of its connections with other branches 
of knowledge, but for its bearing upon many of the interests of society. 
It abounds with the richest interest and instruction to every intelligent 
reader, and is especially fitted to awaken enthusiasm and delight in all who 
are devoted to the study, either of natural science or the history of man- 
kind." — Providence Journal. 

" Geography is here presented under a new and attractive phase ; it is no 
longer a dry desf- iption of the features of the earth's surface. The influ- 
ence of soil, scenery, and climate upon character, has not yet received the 
consideration due to it from historians and philosophers. In the volume 
before us, the profound investigations of Humboldt, Ritter, and others, in 
Physical Geography, are presented in a popular form, and with the clear- 
ness and vivacity so characteristic of French treatises on science. The 
work should be introduced into our higher schools." — TTie Independent^ 
JWuj York. 

" Geography is here made to assume a dignity not heretofore attached to 
it. The knowledge communicated in these lectures is curious, unexpected, 
absorbing." — Christian Mirror, Portland. 





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